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Prof Richard Heeks - publications

List of publications


  • Heeks, R., Foster, C. (Ed.), & Nugroho, Y. (Ed.) (2016). New Models of Inclusive Innovation for Development. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.. Publication link: d948ea5a-1e0f-4406-b83a-a0ac24999e33
  • Ismail, S. A., Heeks, R., Nicholson, B., & Aman, A. (2016). An institutional logics perspective on IT impact sourcing: case study of a developing country public-private partnership. In European Conference on Information Systems 2016 Proceedings. Istanbul. . Publication link: 6a59b804-a54e-4cd5-88d0-75ab65812390


  • Nicholson, B., Malik, F., Morgan, S., & Heeks, R. (2015). EXPLORING HYBRIDS OF COMMERCIAL AND WELFARE LOGICS IN IMPACT SOURCING. In P. Neilsen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries (IFIP 9.4). (pp. 78-91). Oslo, Norway: Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway. . Publication link: 435f3932-0d10-4f4d-a7e6-7c7614864585
  • Heeks, R., & Ospina, A. V. (2015). Analysing urban community informatics from a resilience perspective. Journal of Community Informatics, 11(1). . Publication link: 4ae36b2c-317a-4cc9-8ca2-f7cd8a9f371b
  • Heeks, R., & Stanforth, C. (2015). Technological change in developing countries: opening the black box of process using actor-network theory. Unknown Journal, 2(1), 33-50. DOI: 10.1080/21665095.2015.1026610. Publication link: 153fddea-2cda-4e03-a8e3-3ed2751bfc6c
  • Gonzalez-Zapata, F., & Heeks, R. (2015). The multiple meanings of open government data: Understanding different stakeholders and their perspectives. Government Information Quarterly, 32(4), 441-452. DOI: 10.1016/j.giq.2015.09.001. Publication link: 50aabc42-3911-43b3-bfcb-d64bfba97091
  • Nicholson, B., Quinones, G., Heeks, R., La Rovere, R. (Ed.), Ozório, L. (Ed.), & de Jesus Melo, L. (Ed.) (2015). A Literature Review of E-Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies: Positioning Research on Latin American Digital Startups. In Entrepreneurship in BRICS Policy and Research to Support Entrepreneurs. (pp. 179-209). Switzerland: Springer Verlag. . Publication link: 6d93c0e1-570e-4823-839d-a12355cbf1ff
  • Foster, C., & Heeks, R. (2015). Policies to Support Inclusive Innovation. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 61). Manchester.. Publication link: 924e482b-7de4-471b-b05c-d04b7d90ac2b


  • Heeks, R. (2014). ICTs and Poverty Eradication: Comparing Economic, Livelihoods and Capabilities Models. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 58). Manchester.. Publication link: 567c5cae-f237-4ffa-be6d-cb4fa468bba3
  • Heeks, R., & Stanforth, C. (2014). Understanding development project implementation: an actor-network perspective. Public Administration and Development, 34(1), 14-31. DOI: 10.1002/pad.1671. Publication link: 0333e93f-8bd7-4768-ae31-87c8d0266a3f
  • Foster, C., & Heeks, R. (2014). Nurturing user-producer interaction: inclusive innovation flows in a low-income mobile phone market. Innovation and Development, 4(2), 221-237. DOI: 10.1080/2157930X.2014.921353. Publication link: 26ad6bc2-a0ee-47cd-83f6-353de3d45bce
  • Heeks, R. (2014). Future Priorities for Development Informatics Research from the Post-2015 Development Agenda. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 57). Manchester.. Publication link: 3e398758-0249-4f28-9ca4-46e9f947dc72
  • Heeks, R., Subramanian, L., & Jones, C. (2014). Understanding e-Waste Management in Developing Countries: Strategies, Determinants, and Policy Implications in the Indian ICT Sector. Information Technology for Development, 21(4), 653-667. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2014.886547. Publication link: b14765ed-3644-4394-a9fb-261f7ddfd3d8
  • Heeks, R., Foster, C., & Nugroho, Y. (2014). New models of inclusive innovation for development. Innovation and Development, 4(2), 175-185. DOI: 10.1080/2157930X.2014.928982. Publication link: b56f6ba1-49d8-408d-83be-53c9654db777
  • Heeks, R. (2014). From the MDGs to the Post-2015 Agenda: Analysing Changing Development Priorities. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 56). Manchester.. Publication link: bce1c9bf-eef9-49c1-87b1-0cc1071c161a
  • Heeks, R. (2014). ICT4D 2016: New Priorities for ICT4D Policy, Practice and WSIS in a Post-2015 World. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 59). Manchester.. Publication link: c008faff-a588-4efb-acac-e5965dede72a


  • Heeks, R., & Robinson, A. (2013). Ultra-low-cost computing and developing countries: Raspberry Pi and its potential in the "global South". Communications of the ACM, 56(8), 22-24. DOI: 10.1145/2492007.2492016. Publication link: b750a695-50c6-4752-b81c-31021eda06b3
  • Heeks, R., & Ospina, A. V. (2013). Understanding Urban Climate Change and Digital Infrastructure Interventions from a Resilience Perspective. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 54). Manchester.. Publication link: a9e1e29a-17a5-45d1-9d8b-f4c8448ed798
  • Foster, C., & Heeks, R. (2013). Analyzing policy for inclusive innovation: the mobile sector and base-of-the-pyramid markets in Kenya. Innovation and Development, 3(1), 103-119. DOI: 10.1080/2157930X.2013.764628. Publication link: fd8d3c68-202b-4860-92b8-3d5b23f5bf24
  • Heeks, R. (2013). Information technology impact sourcing. Communications of the ACM, 56(12), 22-25. DOI: 10.1145/2535913. Publication link: f53ed2fb-884e-4d29-90e0-68b15f979c0e
  • Jones, C., Heeks, R., Subramanian, L., & Jones, C. (2013). Understanding e-Waste Management in Developing Countries: Building Sustainability in the Indian ICT Sector. (Development Informatics Working Paper Series; No. 52). Manchester.. Publication link: f7a9a47b-8828-428a-a2d2-c6864b2a1b2d
  • Quinones, G., Nicholson, B., & Heeks, R. (2013). Positioning Research on E-Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies: A Study of Latin-American Digital Ventures. In Proceedings of 3rd Conference of the International Consortium of Studies on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ICIER) Policies to Support Entrepreneurship Rio de Janeiro.. Publication link: 41baa814-e476-49bf-a6c6-b5a758068422
  • Heeks, R., Amalia, M., Kintu, R., & Shah, N. (2013). Inclusive Innovation: Definition, Conceptualisation and Future Research Priorities. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 53). Manchester.. Publication link: 3841f638-2bf1-4ec1-9107-0ff816ffeccf
  • Foster, C., & Heeks, R. (2013). Conceptualising Inclusive Innovation: Modifying Systems of Innovation Frameworks to Understand Diffusion of New Technology to Low-Income Consumers. European Journal of Development Research, 25(3), 333-355. DOI: 10.1057/ejdr.2013.7. Publication link: 0ab16cb6-b3a2-4eb4-9b7d-0e8bf9da2f74
  • Heeks, R., & Seo-Zindy, R. (2013). ICTs and Social Movements Under Authoritarian Regimes: An Actor-Network Perspective. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 51). Manchester.. Publication link: 54128b21-f93c-435c-ae9e-4036f71ca8fb
  • Foster, C., & Heeks, R. (2013). Innovation and scaling of ICT for the bottom-of-the-pyramid. Journal of Information Technology, 28(4), 296-315. DOI: 10.1057/jit.2013.19. Publication link: 94f09e56-c4a3-483b-b7b6-2f8cf4e8652c


  • Heeks, R., R., . U. (Ed.), & Ospina, A. V. (Ed.) (2012). ICTs, Climate Change and Development: Themes and Strategic Actions. Manchester, UK: Centre for Development Informatics.. Publication link: 528180ca-e23b-4f13-aa84-179772f36d23
  • Ty, P. H., Heeks, R., & Chuong, H. V. (2012). Integrating digital and human data sources for environmental planning and climate change adaptation: From research to practice in Central Vietnam. In Linking Research to Practice: Strengthening ICT for Development Research Capacity in Asia|Linking Res. to Pract.: Strengthening ICT for Dev. Res. Capacity in Asia. (pp. 132-146). Ottawa: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. . Publication link: 22d9ad46-8c9f-4d2e-8bac-a781b031d8f0
  • Heeks, R. (2012). IT innovation for the bottom of the pyramid. Communications of the ACM, 55(12), 24-27. DOI: 10.1145/2380656.2380665. Publication link: 23480905-d7e9-416a-b176-30a13df6d099
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Ospina, A. V., Adera, E., & Finlay, A. (Ed.) (2012). The ICTs, climate change adaptation and water project value chain. In Application of ICTs for Climate Change Adaptation in the Water Sector. (pp. 17-32). Melville, South Africa: Association for Progressive Communications. . Publication link: 2d22817f-907a-4b21-82ba-552ef6b4be80
  • Heeks, R., R., . U. (Ed.), & Ospina, A. V. (Ed.) (2012). ICTs, Climate Change and Development: Case Evidence. Manchester, UK: Centre for Development Informatics.. Publication link: 4b918855-4409-42de-ac36-101ce375a909
  • Heeks, R., & Mathisen, H. (2012). Understanding success and failure of anti-corruption initiatives. Crime, Law and Social Change, 58(5), 533-549. DOI: 10.1007/s10611-011-9361-y. Publication link: f30c258a-0f78-4d31-bce8-efebb9e659a2
  • Heeks, R. (2012). Emerging markets. Communications of the ACM, 55(4), 24-26. DOI: 10.1145/2133806.2133815. Publication link: afff8f44-f473-4da4-8181-7bc4967944c3


  • Boateng, R., Heeks, R., Molla, A., & Hinson, R. (2011). Advancing E-commerce beyond readiness in a developing country: Experiences of Ghanaian firms. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 9(1), 1-16. DOI: 10.4018/jeco.2011010101. Publication link: 9fb0e7e4-0fe2-4185-be50-a48b552c7aa7
  • Heeks, R., & Bass, J. (2011). Changing computing curricula in African universities: evaluating progress and challenges via design-reality gap analysis. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 48(5), 1-39. . Publication link: 94326a6e-1b5f-4d32-860e-f423a3a1c2f9
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., & Pant, L. (2011). ICT-Enabled Development of Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation. Manchester: Centre for Development Informatics.. Publication link: 74b07a3b-5274-43f3-9ce4-abc8f6720860
  • Heeks, R. (2011). ICT4D 2.0 and mountain development. Sustainable Mountain Development, 58, 16-18. . Publication link: 4ebcf317-abb3-4bed-b43e-042000822c03
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., & Walton, M. (2011). Can a Process Approach Improve ICT4D Project Success? (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 47). Manchester, UK.. Publication link: d9f9219c-1151-4f9e-9577-c77568fc84bd



  • Heeks, R. (2009). Understanding "gold farming": developing-country production for virtual gameworlds. Information Technologies and International Development, 5(3), 95-97. . Publication link: b09c5fe8-620f-441b-bf38-c84f69e56556
  • Heeks, R., & Kanashiro, L. L. (2009). Telecentres in mountain regions: - A Peruvian case study of the impact of information and communication technologies on remoteness and exclusion. Journal of Mountain Science, 6(4), 320-330. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-009-1070-y. Publication link: c53aa2c8-1654-40b4-8ebe-df173f02923c
  • Konkel, A., & Heeks, R. (2009). Challenging conventional views on mobile-telecommunications investment: Evidence from conflict zones. Development in Practice, 19(3), 414-420. DOI: 10.1080/09614520902808290. Publication link: c7bdb811-d555-439d-9f17-75a16d3f2539
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Boateng, R., Molla, A., Rouiab, K. (Ed.), Khalil, O. (Ed.), & Hassanien, A. E. (Ed.) (2009). e-Commerce in developing economies: A review of theoretical frameworks and approaches. In Emerging Markets and E-Commerce in Developing Economies. (pp. 1-56). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. . Publication link: 01713e2d-991f-43ad-abe2-380f6d4db3ea
  • Heeks, R. (2009). Emerging markets: IT and the world's "bottom billion". Communications of the ACM, 52(4), 22-24. DOI: 10.1145/1498765.1498776. Publication link: 08477444-cca5-48d4-b248-39715f0d4175
  • Heeks, R. (2009). Where next for ICTs and international development? In ICTs for Development. (pp. 29-74). Paris: OECD. . Publication link: 46fcc035-f095-4974-904e-918ea5bab06a
  • Heeks, R. (2009). The ICT4D 2.0 Manifesto: Where Next for ICTs and International Development? (Development Informatics Working Paper; No. 42). Manchester.. Publication link: 2a4842eb-d89a-407b-ad7d-1df3deec1800
  • Heeks, R., & Molla, A. (2009). Impact Assessment of ICT-for-Development Projects: A Compendium of Approaches. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 36). Manchester.. Publication link: 7ca09357-9c40-40be-9bce-f16dd97b9c46


  • Heeks, R., R., . U., & Jagun, A. (2008). Mobile phones and Commonwealth development. In Commonwealth Ministers Reference Book 2008. London: Henley Media Group. . Publication link: c0a3b7e3-73d9-4b7f-a7cb-a38b57f99a69
  • Heeks, R., & Zheng, Y. (2008). Conceptualising Information Culture in Developing Countries. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 34). Manchester.. Publication link: b015dbd9-a007-4d01-b013-48760a49c9c9
  • Boateng, R., Heeks, R., Molla, A., & Hinson, R. (2008). E-commerce and socio-economic development: Conceptualizing the link. Internet Research, 18(5), 562-594. DOI: 10.1108/10662240810912783. Publication link: db5cce4b-dce5-4fca-b142-0df5ce2ac92c
  • Boateng, R., Hinson, R., Heeks, R., & Molla, A. (2008). E-commerce in least developing countries: Summary evidence and implications. Journal of African Business, 9(2), 257-285. DOI: 10.1080/15228910802479919. Publication link: dc175056-cc85-430a-a037-55592c37ac41
  • Heeks, R. (2008). Current Analysis and Future Research Agenda on “Gold Farming”: Real-World Production in Developing Countries for the Virtual Economies of Online Games. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 32). Manchester.. Publication link: 3501bf78-83b7-48e7-a5e5-7be4dd9019b4
  • Heeks, R. (2008). Benchmarking e-Government: Improving the national and international measurement, evaluation and comparison of e-Government. In Evaluating Information Systems: Public and Private Sector|Eval. Inf. Syst.: Public and Priv. Sect.. (pp. 257-301). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. DOI: 10.4324/9780080570105. Publication link: 2c80aa67-4dbd-4eb8-a110-df6c5036514f
  • Heeks, R. (2008). ICT4D 2.0: The next phase of applying ICT for international development. Computer, 41(6), 26-31. DOI: 10.1109/MC.2008.192. Publication link: 2c78a6c5-3595-45e3-9894-07caabec109d
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Lee, H., Jang, S., & Ko, K. (2008). Analysing South Korea's ICT for development aid programme. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 35(2), 1-15. . Publication link: 2e1d4d72-6470-4120-b9c6-9e32214ecc97
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Jagun, A., & Whalley, J. (2008). The impact of mobile telephony on developing country micro-enterprise: a Nigerian case study. Information Technologies and International Development, 4(4), 47-65. . Publication link: 90e553e2-5774-4244-86c7-b70682dd9a79
  • Heeks, R. (2008). Researching ICT-Based Enterprise in Developing Countries: Analytical Tools and Models. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 30). Manchester.. Publication link: 60baabad-a942-41e6-885b-cb68d2840851


  • Heeks, R., & Bailur, S. (2007). Analyzing e-government research: Perspectives, philosophies, theories, methods, and practice. Government Information Quarterly, 24(2), 243-265. DOI: 10.1016/j.giq.2006.06.005. Publication link: d38eee09-dee3-498c-bd87-e6524767f7e6
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Duncombe, R., Cook, P. (Ed.), & Mosedale, S. (Ed.) (2007). Regulating through ethical trade. In Regulation, Markets and Poverty. (pp. 90-98). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. . Publication link: ae583ab4-b2f9-45c2-93b4-7d916c0f1a67
  • Heeks, R., Jagun, A., & Whalley, J. (2007). Mobile Telephony and Developing Country Micro-Enterprise: A Nigerian Case Study. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 29). Manchester.. Publication link: a50fd725-bf90-4c9e-93bb-cb0e9b9c0a7b
  • Heeks, R., & Jagun, A. (2007). Mobile phones and development: the future in new hands?id21 insights, (69). . Publication link: fe746296-00de-4e11-b8b8-cc3f3638b8ad
  • Heeks, R., & Bracking, S. (Ed.) (2007). Why Anti-Corruption Initiatives Fail: Technology Transfer And Contextual Collision. In Corruption and Development: The Anti-Corruption Campaigns. Palgrave Macmillan . . Publication link: 00a1eb28-8270-4f6e-a455-978227a42bdc
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Arun, S., Morgan, S., & Ghadially, R. (Ed.) (2007). ICT initiatives, women and work: changing or reinforcing gender inequalities. In Urban Women in Contemporary India. (pp. 297-308). New Delhi: Sage. . Publication link: 1c438be7-06f6-4fae-bffe-d926bb9f6580
  • Heeks, R., & Stanforth, C. (2007). Understanding e-Government project trajectories from an actor-network perspective. European Journal of Information Systems, 16(2), 165-177. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000676. Publication link: 964fa474-ea3c-42d9-a048-bf789c74d4bf
  • Molla, A., & Heeks, R. (2007). Exploring e-commerce benefits for businesses in a developing country. Information Society, 23(2), 95-108. DOI: 10.1080/01972240701224028. Publication link: 64a7529b-d473-48d1-be70-27417f411979


  • Heeks, R. (2006). Theorizing ICT4D Research. Information Technologies and International Development, 3(3), 1-4. . Publication link: 57e707ba-11f7-4f03-9214-a0d1f4a70f2b
  • Heeks, R. (2006). Using Competitive Advantage Theory to Analyse IT Sectors in Developing Countries: a Software Industry Case Analysis. Information Technologies and International Development, 3(3), 5-34. . Publication link: 5d1f7443-3a1f-4bb6-8bdd-8930d559ab81
  • Cummings, S., Heeks, R., & Huysman, M. (2006). Knowledge and learning in online networks in development: A social-capital perspective. Development in Practice, 16(6), 570-586. DOI: 10.1080/09614520600958215. Publication link: 85ab44b1-9106-4c62-9d20-9c52bdd4921a
  • Macias-Garza, M., & Heeks, R. (2006). Analysing the Organisational Risk and Change of CMM Software Process Improvement in a Nearshoring Firm. (IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers; No. 28). Manchester.. Publication link: 8a23b8bb-7c90-4618-89cc-ef2bb7e7e70a
  • Duncombe, R. A., Heeks, R. B., Morgan, S., & Arun, S. (2006). Supporting Women's ICT-based Enterprises. London: Department for International Development.. Publication link: 42334ef3-ba79-4189-a91a-ce69315de045
  • Heeks, R. (2006). Benchmarking eGovernment: Improving the National and International Measurement, Evaluation and Comparison of eGovernment. (IDPM i-Government Working Papers; No. 18). Manchester.. Publication link: 048c5dfe-fac0-4510-a563-4ae8f03a2c38
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Arun, S., Morgan, S., Hafkin, N. J. (Ed.), & Huyer, S. (Ed.) (2006). Improved Livelihoods And Empowerment For Poor Women Through IT-Sector Intervention. In Cinderella or Cyberella?. Kumarian Press. . Publication link: 0d1a58c8-113b-465f-9f57-92c843d2e3f7
  • Molla, A., Heeks, R., & Balcells, I. (2006). Adding clicks to bricks: A case study of e-commerce adoption by a Catalan small retailer. European Journal of Information Systems, 15(4), 424-438. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000623. Publication link: d71071b6-88f6-4c9e-80c6-99531a835371
  • Heeks, R. (2006). Implementing and Managing eGovernment: an International Text. London: Sage.. Publication link: d6dafe28-c717-46b4-b79a-82545b9e3459
  • Heeks, R. (2006). Health information systems: Failure, success and improvisation. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 75(2), 125-137. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2005.07.024. Publication link: df6c8162-c62a-4829-bad9-5b93412b099a
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Arun, S., Morgan, S., & Trauth, E. (Ed.) (2006). ICTs for economic empowerment of women in South Asia. In Encyclopedia of Gender and Information Technology. (pp. 793-797). Hershey, PA: IGI Publishing. . Publication link: a28435fb-e00f-475f-a4cf-b395bfb76634


  • Heeks, R. (2005). e-Government as a carrier of context. Journal of Public Policy, 25(1), 51-74. DOI: 10.1017/S0143814X05000206. Publication link: 7f7940a3-1206-4cc3-bc76-f8b0f9d604a3
  • Heeks, R., Duncombe, R., R., . U., Kintu, R., Nakangu, B., & Abraham, S. (2005). eCommerce for Small Enterprise Development: a Handbook for Enterprise Support Agencies in Developing Countries. Manchester: IDPM, University of Manchester.. Publication link: de3e5f67-7fda-4b9b-aefd-25f6c2e88c68
  • Heeks, R., Duncombe, R., Kintu, R., Nakangu, B., & Abraham, S. (2005). eCommerce for Small Enterprise Development: a Handbook for Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries. IDPM, University of Manchester.. Publication link: e233d811-90cb-47c1-87c7-4bb0052dc91a


  • Soriyan, H. A., & Heeks, R. (2004). A Profile of Nigeria's Software Industry. (Development Informatics working pape r series; No. 21). University of Manchester.. Publication link: 938ac626-3c28-4f6d-90fd-71dc1606372d
  • Heeks, R., & Nicholson, B. (2004). Software export success factors and strategies in 'follower' nations. Competition and Change, 8(3), 267-303. DOI: 10.1080/1024529042000301962. Publication link: 7edbcf24-c123-4183-b59c-64df59d9a11e
  • Heeks, R., & Coopey, R. (Ed.) (2004). Romania's Hardware and Software Industry: Building Information Technology Policy and Capabilities in a Transitional Economy. In Information Technology Policy. Oxford: OUP. . Publication link: 0f7e82fe-743a-4085-a279-b42751cd993b
  • Heeks, R., & Coopey, R. (Ed.) (2004). Facing in, Facing out: Information Technology Production Policy in India from the 1960s to the 1990s. In Information Technology Policy. Oxford: OUP. . Publication link: a342b1d1-d2b0-4b60-a970-1830de2aaabc
  • Heeks, R., Arun, S., & Morgan, S. (2004). ICT Initiatives, Women and Work in Developing Countries: Reinforcing or Changing Gender Inequalities in South India? (Development Informatics Working Paper Series; No. 20). University of Manchester.. Publication link: b6b2d194-64ba-42ff-b1db-bd962b944821


  • Lai, S-Y., Heeks, R., & Nicholson, B. (2003). Uncertainty and Coordination in Global Software Projects: A UK/India-Centred Case Study. (Development Informatics working papers; No. 17). University of Manchester.. Publication link: fd6d22bd-acf7-4e73-9b2a-1154e2e1aa32
  • Heeks, R., Duncombe, R., Cook, P. (Ed.), Kirkpatrick, C. (Ed.), Minogue, M. (Ed.), & Parker, D. (Ed.) (2003). Ethical Trade: Issues in the Regulation of Global Supply Chains. In Leading Issues in Competition, Regulation and Development. Edward Elgar. . Publication link: b2d16031-bf5e-4c00-a963-e481c4ebde4a
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Alampay, E., & Soliva, P. (2003). Bridging the Information Divide: a Philippine Guidebook on ICTs for Development. 0: NCPAG, University of the Philippines.. Publication link: 11a71559-8dfd-447c-969d-0f90a8e2454a
  • Heeks, R. (2003). Most eGovernment-for-Development Projects Fail: How Can Risks be Reduced? (iGovernment working paper series; No. 14). University of Manchester.. Publication link: 33104551-a5dd-468d-a8e9-8eed52dfb9ab
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., & Roberts, J. (2003). Making ICTs Work for Healthcare: the Potential for Two-Way Learning Between the UK and Developing Countries. British Journal of Healthcare Computing and Information Management, 20(2). . Publication link: 910bce2d-c1b5-4098-bb29-9d90414f475f
  • Duncombe, R., & Heeks, R. (2003). An Information Systems Perspective on Ethical Trade and Self-Regulation. Information Technology for Development, 10(2), 123-138. DOI: 10.1002/itdj.1590100206. Publication link: 94332470-2bd3-4d00-8ad1-d083497507b8
  • Heeks, R. (2003). eGovernment in Africa: Promise and Practice. Information Polity, 7(2-3), 97-114. . Publication link: 6cd35889-c885-4f63-978a-1fa900182169


  • Duncombe, R., & Heeks, R. (2002). Enterprise across the digital divide: Information systems and rural microenterprise in Botswana. Journal of International Development, 14(1), 61-74. DOI: 10.1002/jid.869. Publication link: 767ba2f5-f246-4f65-b566-8fd0c6e4c4e0
  • Heeks, R., & Kisielnicki, J. (Ed.) (2002). Citizen Access and the Use of Government Data: Understanding the Barriers. In Organizations in Virtual Communities. IRM Press, Hershey, PA. . Publication link: 57d9b818-eaa8-4b5f-a98f-720a8f3839da
  • Heeks, R., & Duncombe, R. (2002). Information, ICTs and Small Enterprise: Findings from Botswana. In Small-Scale Enterprises in Developing and Transitional Economies. Basingstoke: Palgrave. . Publication link: 6bccb313-c678-4b3b-bbea-99cb65a426cc
  • Duncombe, R., & Heeks, R. (2002). Information, ICTs and Ethical Trade: Implications for Self-Regulation. (Centre on Regulation and Competition (CRC) Working papers; No. 41). University of Manchester.. Publication link: 1200cbd9-aa6a-4f2d-ac52-0ca43b242764
  • Heeks, R. (2002). Information systems and developing countries: Failure, success, and local improvisations. Information Society, 18(2), 101-112. DOI: 10.1080/01972240290075039. Publication link: 1f8a0823-7514-4a02-8cc0-e8bd010724fa
  • Heeks, R. (2002). I-development not e-development: Special issue on ICTs and development. Journal of International Development, 14(1), 1-11. DOI: 10.1002/jid.861. Publication link: 4a82b37e-96a1-4578-bc64-cb487ea52674


  • Heeks, R. (2001). Building e-Governance for Development: A Framework for National and Donor Action. (The i-Government working paper series; No. 12). University of Manchester.. Publication link: 32557ed0-0e37-4272-8298-1e3d2b68073c
  • Heeks, R. (2001). Understanding e-Governance for Development. (The i-Government working paper series; No. 11). University of Manchester.. Publication link: 2a9d5ca5-ccd0-4bc0-bb58-90bf29b30097
  • Heeks, R., & Duncombe, R. (2001). Information, Technology and Small Enterprise: a Handbook for Enterprise Support Agencies in Developing Countries. 0: IDPM, University of Manchester.. Publication link: 121dc2e1-e525-41a0-8906-fd1b0a9be3e0
  • Heeks, R., & Mundy, D. (2001). Information Systems and Public Sector Reform in the Third World. In The Industrialization of Public Management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. . Publication link: 6beb6fb8-f9f6-4184-a141-8a320c658f0b
  • Heeks, R., Krishna, S., Nicholson, B., & Sahay, S. (2001). Synching or sinking: Global software outsourcing relationships. IEEE Software, 18(2), 54-60. DOI: 10.1109/52.914744. Publication link: 5577023c-1d81-4797-a779-316e10e48d51
  • Duncombe, R., & Heeks, R. (2001). Information, Technology and Small Enterprise: A Handbook for Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries. 0: IDPM, University of Manchester.. Publication link: 82f443ce-fe00-42fe-bc03-cadf1eb4736a
  • Heeks, R. (2001). Understanding digital Government Project Failures (part of article called The Ongoing March Toward Digital Government). Computer (New York), 34(2), 32 (34)-38. DOI: 10.1109/2.901165. Publication link: ebd50f28-afb1-4c89-8251-b2880c55f292
  • Heeks, R. (2001). "What Did Giddens and Latour Ever Do For Us?" Academic Writings on Information Systems and Development. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A Newsletter of the International Federation for Information Processing Working Group 9.4 and Centre for Electronic Governance Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, 11(1). . Publication link: fca52032-068c-412d-b6c5-e88e0b955ee8



  • Heeks, R. B. (1999). Software Strategies in Developing Countries. Communications of the ACM, 42(6), 15-20. DOI: 10.1145/303849.303853. Publication link: ba7c8672-8557-4a02-9b19-6936c97b61c7
  • Duncombe, R., & Heeks, R. (1999). Information, ICTs and Small Enterprise: Findings from Botswana. (Development Informatics Working Paper Series; No. 7). University of Manchester.. Publication link: d2ec2d04-7605-4fa0-8b87-33fb836b8157
  • Heeks, R., Mundy, D., & Salazar, A. (1999). Why Health Care Information Systems Succeed or Fail. (Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper Series; No. 9). University of Manchester.. Publication link: 1a60f3ea-47ba-44a2-994d-121b74e077f7
  • Heeks, R. (1999). The Tyranny of Participation in Information Systems: Learning from Development Projects. (Development Informatics working papers; No. 4). University of Manchester.. Publication link: 41e62003-e9c9-472e-af07-0449b95f6cf0
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., & Baark, E. (1999). Donor-Funded Information Technology Transfer Projects: Evaluating The Life-Cycle Approach In Four Chinese Science And Technology Projects. Information Technology for Development, 8(4), 185-197. . Publication link: 44a4ff55-fce9-4936-a1db-eec5d7356709
  • Heeks, R. (1999). Information Technology And The Management Of Corruption. Development in Practice, 9(1&2), 184-189. . Publication link: 56371d51-da14-404f-99ea-983c07dd243a
  • Heeks, R. (1999). Reinventing Government in the Information Age. London: Routledge.. Publication link: 6ed2166d-f4fa-45fa-ae80-46b57e53edc7


  • Heeks, R. (1996). India's Software Industry. Sage Publications.. Publication link: 61ec081c-5b66-4050-8f0a-fb8719489126
  • Heeks, R., & Slamen-McCann, A. (1996). Job and skill impacts of new technology in the East Asian electronics industry: Some aspects of recent literature. Science, Technology and Development, 14(3), 50-71. . Publication link: 389f4c29-6bb4-44d6-9fce-6d9526a88438


  • Heeks, R. (1995). Import Liberalisation And Development Of The Indian Computer Industry. Economic & Political Weekly, 30(34), M82-M93. . Publication link: 553d4b2b-eecf-46d5-8cd2-a666238e6c56
  • Heeks, R., R., . U., Bhatt, P., Huq, M., Lewis, C., & Shibli, A. (1995). Technology and Developing Countries. Frank Cass.. Publication link: ef5538b8-e3c9-43d5-964c-0b56b6753319



  • Heeks, R. (1991). New Technology And The International Divisions Of Labour: A Case Study Of The Indian Software Industry. Science, Technology & Development, 9((1/2)), 97-106. . Publication link: 102ba3c5-e791-4ec3-9ec0-d5ec7e882156