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Dr Robert Clarke (PhD) - publications

List of publications


  • Smit L, Berns K, Spence K, Ryder WD, Zeps N, Madiredjo M, Beijersbergen R, Bernards R and Clarke RB. (2016). An integrated genomic approach identifies that the PI3K/AKT/FOXO pathway is involved in breast cancer tumor initiation. Oncotarget, 7(3), 2596-2610. eScholarID:279531
  • Giordano C, Chemi F, Panza S, Bonofiglio IB D, Lanzino M, Cordella A, Campana A, Hashim A, Rizza P, Győrffy B, Simões BM, Clarke RB, Weisz A, Catalano S and Andò S. (2016). Leptin as a Mediator of Tumor-Stromal Interactions Promotes Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity. Oncotarget, 7(2), 1262-1275. eScholarID:279528
  • Aires A, Ocampo SM, Simões BM, Rodriguez MJ, Couleaud P, Spence K, Latorre A, Miranda R, Somoza A, Clarke RB, Carrascosa JL, and Cortajarena AL. (2016). Multifunctionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery to CD44 positive cancer cells. Nanotechnology, 27(6), 065103. eScholarID:279530


  • Simões BM, O’Brien CS, Eyre R, Silva A, Yu L, Sarmiento-Castro A, Alferez D, Spence K, Santiago-Gómez A, Chemi F, Acar A, Gandhi A, Howell A, Brennan K, Rydén L, Catalano S, Andó S, Gee J, Ucar A, Sims AH, Marangoni E, Farnie G, Landberg G, Howell SJ and Clarke RB. (2015). Anti-estrogen resistance in human breast tumors is driven by JAG1-NOTCH4-dependent cancer stem cell activity. Cell Rep, 12(12), 1968-1977. eScholarID:279514
  • Lamb R, Fiorillo M, Chadwick A, Ozsvari B, Reeves KJ, Smith DL, Clarke RB, Howell SJ, Cappello AR, Martinez-Outschoorn UE, Peiris-Pagès M, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP. (2015). Doxycycline down-regulates DNA-PK and radiosensitizes tumor initiating cells: Implications for more effective radiation therapy. Oncotarget, 6(16), 14005-1425. eScholarID:271275
  • Williams KE, Bundred NJ, Landberg G, Clarke RB, Farnie G. (2015). Focal Adhesion Kinase and Wnt Signaling Regulate human ductal carcinoma in situ stem cell activity and response to radiotherapy. Stem Cells, 33, 327-341. eScholarID:270490
  • Simões B, Alferez D, Howell S and Clarke RB. (2015). The role of steroid hormones in breast cancer stem cells. Endocr Relat Cancer, 22 (6):T177-86(6), 177-186. eScholarID:279515


  • Wright PK, Jones SB, Ardern N, Ward R, Clarke RB, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP, Landberg G, Lamb R. (2014). 17β-estradiol regulates giant vesicle formation via estrogen receptor-alpha in human breast cancer cells. Oncotarget, 5(10), 3055-3065. eScholarID:230915
  • Ablett MP, O’Brien CS, Sims AH, Farnie G and Clarke RB. (2014). A differential role for CXCR4 in the regulation of normal versus malignant breast stem cell activity. Oncotarget, 5(3), 599-612. eScholarID:207644
  • Lamb R, Lisanti MP, Clarke RB, Landberg G. (2014). Co-ordination of cell cycle, migration and stem cell-like activity in breast cancer. Oncotarget, 5(17), 7833-7842. eScholarID:230945
  • Farnie G, Johnson RL, Williams K, Clarke RB, Bundred NJ. (2014). Lapatinib inhibits stem/progenitor proliferation in preclinical in vitro models of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Cell Cycle, 13(3), 27201. eScholarID:216540
  • Vieira AF, Ribeiro AS, Dionísio MR, Sousa B, Nobre R, Albergaria A, Santiago-Gómez A, Schmitt F, Clarke RB, Paredes J. (2014). P-cadherin intracellular signalling is dependent on α6β4 integrin activation inducing stem cell and invasive properties in human breast cancer cells. Oncotarget, 5(3), 679-692. eScholarID:221404
  • Hidalgo M, Amant F, Biankin AV, Budinská E, Byrne A, Caldas C, Clarke RB, De Jong S, Jonkers J, Mælandsmo GM, Roman‐Roman S, Seoane J, Trusolino L, Villanueva A. (2014). Patient Derived Xenograft Models: An Emerging Platform For Translational Cancer Research. Cancer Discov, 4(9), 998-1013. eScholarID:230946
  • Hidalgo M, Amant F, Biankin AV, Budinská E, Byrne A, Caldas C, Clarke RB, De Jong S, Jonkers J, Mælandsmo GM, Roman‐Roman S, Seoane J, Trusolino L, Villanueva A. (2014). Patient Derived Xenograft Models: An Emerging Platform For Translational Cancer Research. Cancer Discov, 4(9), 998-1013. eScholarID:271270
  • Howell A, Anderson AS, Clarke RB, Duffy SW, Evans DG, Garcia–Closas M, Gescher AJ, Key TJ, Saxton JM , Harvie MN. (2014). Risk Determination and Prevention of Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer Research (Online), 16(5), 446. eScholarID:271273


  • Clarke RB, Stingl J, Vivanco M and Bentires-Alj M. (2013). "The charmingest place": Non-coding RNA, lineage tracing, tumour heterogeneity, metastasis and metabolism - new methods in mammary gland development and cancer: the fifth ENBDC Workshop. Breast Cancer Research, 515(5), 313. eScholarID:210584
  • Lamb R, Lehn S, Rogerson L, Clarke RB, Landberg G. (2013). Cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 have estrogen receptor-dependent divergent functions in breast cancer migration and stem cell-like activity. Cell Cycle, 12(15), eScholarID:203328
  • Farnie G, Willan PM, Clarke RB, Bundred NJ. (2013). Combined Inhibition of ErbB1/2 and Notch Receptors Effectively Targets Breast Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) Stem/Progenitor Cell Activity Regardless of ErbB2 Status. PLoS One, 8(2), e56840. eScholarID:189570
  • Brennan KR, Clarke RB. (2013). Combining Notch inhibition with current therapies for breast cancer treatment. Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology, 5(1), 17-24. eScholarID:189573
  • Harrison H, Rogerson L, Gregson HJ, Brennan KR, Clarke RB and Landberg G. (2013). Contrasting hypoxic effect on breast cancer stem cell hierarchy is dependent on ERα status. Cancer Research, 73(4), 1420-1433. eScholarID:183505
  • Eccles SA, Aboagye EO, Ali S, Anderson AS, Armes J, Berditchevski F, Blaydes JP, Brennan K, Brown NJ, Bryant HE, Bundred NJ, Burchell JM, Campbell AM, Carroll JS, Clarke RB et al. (2013). Critical research gaps and translational prioritiesfor the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research, 15(5), R92. eScholarID:209730
  • Yu L, Liu S, Zhang C, Zhang B, Simões BM, Eyre R, Liang Y, Yan H, Wu Z, Guo W, Clarke RB. (2013). Enrichment of human osteosarcoma stem cells based on hTERT transcriptional activity. OncoTarget, 4(12), 2326-2338. eScholarID:216539
  • Harrison H, Simões BM, Rogerson L, Howell SJ, Landberg G, Clarke RB. (2013). Oestrogen increases the activity of oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer stem cells through paracrine EGFR and Notch signalling. Breast Cancer Research, 15, artR21. eScholarID:189572 | DOI:10.1186/bcr3396
  • Singh JK, Simões BM, Howell SJ, Farnie G and Clarke RB. (2013). Recent Advances Reveal IL-8 Signalling as a Potential Key to Targeting Breast Cancer Stem Cells. Breast Cancer Research, 15, 210. eScholarID:207643
  • Singh JK, Farnie G, Bundred NJ, Simões BM, Shergill A, Landberg G, Howell SJ and Clarke RB. (2013). Targeting CXCR1/2 Significantly Reduces Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity and Increases the Efficacy of Inhibiting HER2 via HER2-dependent and -independent Mechanisms. Clinical Cancer Research, 19(3), 643-656. eScholarID:180333 | DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1063
  • Singh JK, Simoes BM, Clarke RB, Bundred NJ. (2013). Targeting IL-8 signalling to inhibit breast cancer stem cell activity. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, 17(11), 1235-1241. eScholarID:209402
  • McClements L, Yakkundi A, Papaspyropoulos A, Harrison H, Ablett MP, Jithesh PV, McKeen HD, Bennett R, Donley C, Kissenpfennig A, McIntosh S, McCarthy HO, O’Neill E, Clarke RB, and Robson T. (2013). Targeting treatment resistant breast cancer stem cells with FKBPL and its peptide derivative, AD-01, via the CD44 pathway. Clinical Cancer Research, 19(14), 3881-3893. eScholarID:201179
  • Lamb R, Ablett MP, Spence K, Landberg G, Sims AH and Clarke RB. (2013). Wnt pathway activity in breast cancer sub-types and stem-like cells. PLoS ONE, 8(7), e67811. eScholarID:201180


  • Shaw FL, Harrison H, Spence K, Ablett MP, Simões BM, Farnie G, Clarke RB. (2012). A detailed mammosphere assay protocol for the quantification of breast stem cell activity. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 17(2), 111-117. eScholarID:168643 | DOI:10.1007/s10911-012-9255-3
  • Ferraldeschi R, Latif A, Clarke RB, Spence K, Ashton G, O'Sullivan J, Evans DG, Howell A, and Newman WG. (2012). Lack of caveolin-1 (P132L) somatic mutations in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 132(3), 1185-1186. eScholarID:183504
  • Vieira AF, Ricardo S, Ablett MP, Dionísio MR, Mendes N, Albergaria A, Farnie G, Gerhard R, Cameselle-Teijeiro JF, Seruca R, Schmitt F, Clarke RB and Paredes J. (2012). P-Cadherin Is Coexpressed with CD44 and CD49f and Mediates Stem Cell Properties in Basal-like Breast Cancer. Stem Cells, 30(5), 854-864. eScholarID:160736 | DOI:10.1002/stem.1075
  • Ablett MP, Singh JK and Clarke RB. (2012). Stem cells in breast tumours: Are they ready for the clinic? European Journal of Cancer, 48(14), 2104-2116. eScholarID:160735 | DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2012.03.019


  • Thompson AM, Quinlan P, Bray SE, Johnson AM, Nikoloff DM, Purdie CA, Jordan LB, Ferraldeschi R, Latif A, Hadfield K, Clarke RB, Ashcroft L, Evans DG, Fontecha M, Hillman G, Howell A, Lawrence HJ and Newman WG. (2011). Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotype, adherence and co-medication affect outcome in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen monotherapy. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 125(1), 279-287. eScholarID:96492 | DOI:10.1007/s10549-010-1139-x
  • Agur Z, Kirnasovsky OU, Vasserman G, Tencer-Hershkowicz L, Kogan Y, Harrison H, Lamb R and Clarke RB. (2011). Dickkopf1 Regulates Fate Decision and Drives Breast Cancer Stem Cells to Differentiation: An Experimentally Supported Mathematical Model. PLoS One, 6(9), e24225. eScholarID:155452 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0024225


  • Harrison H, Farnie G, Brennan KR and Clarke RB. (2010). Breast cancer stem cells: something out of Notching. Cancer Research, 70(22), 8973-8976. eScholarID:96493 | DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1559
  • Agur Z, Kogan Y, Levi L, Harrison H, Lamb R, Kirnasovsky OU and Clarke RB. (2010). Disruption of a Quorum Sensing mechanism triggers tumorigenesis: a simple discrete model corroborated by experiments in mammary cancer stem cells. Biology Direct, 5(1), 20. eScholarID:80141 | DOI:10.1186/1745-6150-5-20
  • Harrison H, Farnie G, Howell SJ, Rock R, Stylianou S, Brennan KR, Bundred NJ, Clarke RB. (2010). Regulation of breast cancer stem cell activity by signalling through the Notch4 receptor. Cancer Research, 70(2), 709-718. eScholarID:75908 | DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1681
  • Rieger ME., Sims AH, Coats ER, Clarke RB and Briegel KJ. (2010). The embryonic transcription cofactor LBH is a target of the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial development and in aggressive basal subtype breast cancers. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 30(17), 4267-4279. eScholarID:87736 | DOI:10.1128/MCB.01418-09


  • Ong KR, Sims AH, Harvie M, Chapman M, Dunn WB, Broadhurst D, Goodacre R, Wilson M, Thomas N, Clarke RB, Howell A. (2009). Biomarkers of dietary energy restriction in women at increased risk of breast cancer. Cancer Prevention Research, 2(8), 720-731. eScholarID:75907 | DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0008
  • Bentires-Alj M, Clarke RB, Jonkers J, Smalley M and Stein T. (2009). It's all in the details: methods in breast development and cancer. Breast Cancer Research, 11(4), 305. eScholarID:80140 | DOI:10.1186/bcr2346
  • Blance RR, Sims A, Anderson E, Howell A-, Clarke RB. (2009). Normal breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice identifies biomarkers of the effects of human pregnancy levels of estrogen. Cancer Prevention Research, 2(3), 257-64. eScholarID:1d32440 | DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0161
  • O'Brien C, Howell S, Farnie G, Clarke RB. (2009). Resistance to endocrine therapy: are breast cancer stem cells the culprits? J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 14( 1), 45-54. eScholarID:1d19675 | DOI:10.1007/s10911-009-9115-y
  • Foster FM, Owens TW, Tanianis-Hughes J, Clarke RB, Brennan K, Bundred NJ, Streuli CH. (2009). Targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in combination with ErbB antagonists in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res, 11( 3), eScholarID:1d19674 | DOI:10.1186/bcr2328


  • Rice L, Waters C, Eccles J, Garside H, Sommer P, Kay P, Blackhall F, Zeef L, Telfer B, Stratford I, Clarke RB, Singh SD, Stevens A, White A, Ray DW. (2008). Identification and functional analysis of SKA2 interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor. J Endocrinol, 198, 499-509. eScholarID:1d17833 | DOI:10.1677/JOE-08-0019
  • Howell SJ, Anderson E, Hunter T, Farnie G, Clarke RB. (2008). Prolactin receptor antagonism reduces the clonogenic capacity of breast cancer cells and potentiates doxorubicin and paclitaxel cytotoxicity. Breast Cancer Res, 10( 4), eScholarID:1d32170 | DOI:10.1186/bcr2129
  • Sims AH, Smethurst GJ, Hey Y, Okoniewski MJ, Pepper SD, Howell A, Miller CJ, Clarke RB. (2008). The removal of multiplicative, systematic bias allows integration of breast cancer gene expression datasets - improving meta-analysis and prediction of prognosis. BMC Med Genomics, 1( 1), eScholarID:1d32394 | DOI:10.1186/1755-8794-1-42
  • Nguyen Huu N, Ryder W, Zeps N, Flasza M, Chiu M, Hanby A, Poulsom R, Clarke RB, Baron M. (2008). Tumour-promoting activity of altered WWP1 expression in breast cancer and its utility as a prognostic indicator. Journal of Pathology, 216(1), 93-102. eScholarID:1d32182 | DOI:10.1002/path.2385


  • Coppock H, Gilham DE, Howell A-, Clarke RB. (2007). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and basement membrane interact to regulate breast epithelial cell differentiation and acinar morphogenesis. Cell Prolif, 40( 5), 721-40. eScholarID:1d20077 | DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2007.00463.x
  • Farnie G, Clarke RB. (2007). Mammary stem cells and breast cancer--role of Notch signalling. Stem Cell Rev, 3( 2), 169-75. eScholarID:1d32606
  • Farnie G, Clarke RB, Spence K, Pinnock N, Brennan K, Anderson N, Bundred NJ. (2007). Novel cell culture technique for primary ductal carcinoma in situ: role of Notch and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways. J Natl Cancer Inst, 99(8), 616-627. eScholarID:1d15720 | DOI:10.1093/jnci/djk133
  • Sims A, Howell A-, Howell S, Clarke RB. (2007). Origins of breast cancer subtypes and therapeutic implications. Nat Clin Pract Oncol, 4( 9), 516-25. eScholarID:1d20075 | DOI:10.1038/ncponc0908
  • Sims A, Finnon P, Miller C, Bouffler S, Howell A, Scott D, Clarke RB. (2007). TPD52 and NFKB1 gene expression levels correlate with G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity in lymphocytes of women with and at risk of hereditary breast cancer. Int J Radiat Biol, 83( 6), 409-20. eScholarID:1d31299


  • Stylianou S, Clarke RB, Brennan K. (2006). Aberrant activation of notch signaling in human breast cancer. Cancer Res, 66( 3), 1517-25. eScholarID:1d12967 | DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3054
  • Wilson C, Sims AH, Howell A-, Miller C, Clarke RB. (2006). Effects of oestrogen on gene expression in epithelium and stroma of normal human breast tissue. Endocr Relat Cancer, 13( 2), 617-28. eScholarID:1d29980
  • Bramley M, Clarke RB, Howell A-, Evans DDGR, Armer T, Baildam AD, Anderson E. (2006). Effects of oestrogens and anti-oestrogens on normal breast tissue from women bearing BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Br J Cancer, 94( 7), 1021-8. eScholarID:1d12966 | DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603042
  • Kalirai H, Clarke RB. (2006). Human breast epithelial stem cells and their regulation. J Pathol, 208( 1), 7-16. eScholarID:1d22528


  • Clarke RB, Spence K, Anderson E, Howell A-, Okano H, Potten C. (2005). A putative human breast stem cell population is enriched for steroid receptor-positive cells. Dev Biol, 277( 2), 443-56. eScholarID:1d9267 | DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.07.044
  • Clarke RB. (2005). Isolation and characterization of human mammary stem cells. Cell Prolif, 38( 6), 375-86. eScholarID:1d22527
  • Smalley M, Clarke RB. (2005). The mammary gland "side population": a putative stem/progenitor cell marker? J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 10( 1), 37-47. eScholarID:1d22497


  • Clarke RB. (2004). Complementary yet distinct roles for oestrogen receptor-alpha and oestrogen receptor-beta in mouse mammary epithelial proliferation. Breast Cancer Res, 6( 3), 135-6. eScholarID:1d29277
  • Anderson E, Clarke RB. (2004). Steroid receptors and cell cycle in normal mammary epithelium. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 9( 1), 3-13. eScholarID:1d22442
  • Hayward D, Clarke RB, Faragher A, Pillai M, Hagan IM, Fry A. (2004). The centrosomal kinase Nek2 displays elevated levels of protein expression in human breast cancer. Cancer Res, 64( 20), 7370-6. eScholarID:1d9269 | DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0960


  • Potten CS, Booth, C, Tudor GL, Booth D, Brady G, Hurley P, Ashton G, Clarke, RB, Sakakibara S-I, Okano H. (2003). Identification of a putative intestinal stem cell and early lineage marker: musashi-1. Differentiation, 71, 28-41. eScholarID:1d2635 | DOI:10.1046/j.1432-0436.2003.700603.x
  • Clarke RB, Anderson E, Howell A, Potten C. (2003). Regulation of human breast epithelial stem cells. Cell Prolif, 36 Suppl 1, 45-58. eScholarID:1d22444


  • Clarke RB. (2002). Mutations in DNA damage response genes and breast cancer susceptibility. Breast Cancer Research, eScholarID:1d2636


  • McIntyre IG, Clarke RB, Anderson E, Clarke N, George NN J. (2001). Molecular prediction of progression of prostate cancer in conservatively managed patients. Urology, 58, eScholarID:1d2638


  • Anderson E, Clarke RB. (1999). Epithelial stem cells in the mammary gland: Casting light into dark corners. Breast Cancer Res, 1, 11-13. eScholarID:1d2647
  • Shoker B. S, Jarvis C, Clarke RB, Anderson E, Hewlett J, Davies M. P, Sibson D. R, Sloane J. P. (1999). Estrogen receptor-positive proliferating cells in the normal and precancerous breast. Am. J. Pathol, 155, 6, 1811-1815. eScholarID:1d2645


  • Anderson E, Clarke RB, Howell A. (1998). Estrogen responsiveness and control of normal human breast proliferation. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 3, 1, eScholarID:1d22513


  • Clarke RB, Howell A, Potten C. S, Anderson E. (1997). Dissociation between steroid receptor expression and cell proliferation in the human breast. Cancer Res, 57, 22, eScholarID:1d22515
  • Clarke RB, Howell A, Anderson E. (1997). Estrogen sensitivity of normal human breast tissue in vivo and implanted into athymic nude mice: analysis of the relationship between estrogen-induced proliferation and progesterone receptor expression. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 45, 2, eScholarID:1d22516
  • Clarke RB, Howell A, Anderson E. (1997). Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor gene expression in normal human breast tissue treated with oestrogen and progesterone. Br J Cancer, 75, 2, eScholarID:1d22517


  • Laidlaw I. J, Clarke RB, Howell A, Owen A. W, Potten C. S, Anderson E. (1995). The proliferation of normal human breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice is stimulated by estrogen but not progesterone. Endocrinology, 136, 1, eScholarID:1d22521


  • Clarke RB, Laidlaw I. J, Jones L. J, Howell A, Anderson E. (1993). Effect of tamoxifen on Ki67 labelling index in human breast tumours and its relationship to oestrogen and progesterone receptor status. Br J Cancer, 67, 3, eScholarID:1d22514