BSc Pharmacology

Year of entry: 2020

Overview

Degree awarded
BSc (Hons)
Duration
3 years
Typical A-level offer

AAA-ABB (including specific subjects)

Typical contextual A-level offer (what is this?)
AAB-ABC (including specific subjects).
Typical International Baccalaureate offer
36-33 points overall with 6,6,6 to 6,5,5 at Higher Level including two science subjects, normally Biology and Chemistry.

Full entry requirements

Number of places/applicants
650/4500 (Overall data for biological and biomedical sciences undergraduate courses at Manchester)
How to apply

Apply through UCAS .

You should not usually apply for more than one of the biological and biomedical sciences courses offered by The University of Manchester. Please contact us for advice if you are planning to do so.

Course overview

  • Study at a university that is 5th in the UK for pharmacy and pharmacology (QS World University Rankings 2019).
  • Gain experimental design and practical skills that will equip you to work in the pharmaceutical industry, the UK's top research sector.
  • Spend one semester in Year 2 studying abroad at Stony Brook University in the US.
  • Improve your employability by taking this course with an integrated master's, industrial/professional experience or a modern language.

Open days

Attending an open day is a great way to find out what studying at Manchester is like. Find out about our  upcoming open days .

We also operate campus tours where a student ambassador will tell you all about life at the University. You may also meet with admissions staff, subject to staff availability. These tours run on most days and are open to anybody thinking of applying for any of our courses in the biological and biomedical sciences.

To book, please contact the Admissions Office on tel +44 (0)161 275 5032 or email  ug.biosciences@manchester.ac.uk

Fees

Tuition fees for home/EU students commencing their studies in September 2020 will be £9,250 per annum. Tuition fees for international students will be £24,000 per annum. For general information please see the undergraduate finance pages.

Policy on additional costs

All students should normally be able to complete their programme of study without incurring additional study costs over and above the tuition fee for that programme. Any unavoidable additional compulsory costs totalling more than 1% of the annual home undergraduate fee per annum, regardless of whether the programme in question is undergraduate or postgraduate taught, will be made clear to you at the point of application. Further information can be found in the University's Policy on additional costs incurred by students on undergraduate and postgraduate taught programmes (PDF document, 91KB).

Contact details

School/Faculty
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health
Telephone
+44 (0)161 275 5032
Facsimile
+44 (0)161 275 5456
Email
Website
https://www.bmh.manchester.ac.uk/biomedicine
School/Faculty overview
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health

Courses in related subject areas

Use the links below to view lists of courses in related subject areas.

Compare this course

Entry requirements

A-level

Practical skills are a crucial part of science education and therefore there will be a requirement to pass the practical element of any science A Level taken. Where applicants are applying for science and related degrees, this is likely to be made explicit in the offers you will receive.

We require grades AAA-ABB, including two of Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Maths (the Hard Sciences). You must have a minimum of grades AB in at least two Hard Sciences and pass the practical assessments in these subjects.

If your grades are AAB or higher, we will accept a grade A in Geography, Psychology, Environmental Studies or PE in place of one of the Hard Sciences. Subjects with overlapping content are not normally considered as separate A-levels, eg Further Maths is not considered alongside Maths and Human Biology is not considered alongside Biology. General Studies is welcomed but not normally included as part of the offer.

Your offer will be based on the above criteria as well as your predicted grades and past performance.

AS-level

AS level results are not considered as part of the standard admissions process at The University of Manchester.

Unit grade information

The University of Manchester welcomes the provision of unit information where available.  Like all other information provided by applicants this may be taken into consideration when assessing your application.  Unit grades will not normally form part of an offer conditions.

GCSE

Applicants must demonstrate a broad general education including acceptable levels of Literacy and Numeracy, equivalent to at least Grade C or 4 in GCSE/iGCSE English Language and Mathematics. GCSE/iGCSE English Literature will not be accepted in lieu of GCSE/iGCSE English Language.

Please note that if you hold English as a second language iGCSE qualification, we may also require you to offer one of our acceptable equivalent English Language qualifications or achieve a higher grade in your iGCSE than the one stated above. Please contact ug.biosciences@manchester.ac.uk  for clarification.

International Baccalaureate

36-33 points overall with 6,6,6 to 6,5,5 at Higher Level including two science subjects, normally Biology and Chemistry.

Scottish requirements

Scottish Advanced Highers are normally required in one of the following combinations:

Three Advanced Highers with grades AAB-BBB including two science subjects, normally Biology and Chemistry orTwo Advanced Highers with grades AA-BB in two science subjects, normally Biology and Chemistry, plus two additional Highers with grades AA-BB

Students with Highers only with grades AAAAA-AABBB may be considered for the Foundation Year.

English Language and Mathematics not taken at Higher/Advanced Higher must have been achieved at SCQF level 5 (minimum National 5 grade C/Intermediate 2 grade C/Standard Grade Credit level grade 3).

If you require further clarification about the acceptability of this qualification please contact ug.biosciences@manchester.ac.uk .

Welsh Baccalaureate

The University welcomes and recognises the value of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma/Advanced Skills Challenge Certificate and would consider it when it is taken with two science A-levels.

The minimum grades required will normally be the same as the A-levels.

If you require further clarification about the acceptability of this qualification please contact ug.biosciences@manchester.ac.uk .

European Baccalaureate

The University of Manchester welcomes applicants with the European Baccalaureate. Acceptable on its own or in combination with other qualifications, applications from students studying for this qualification are welcome and all applicants will be considered on an individual basis.

We normally require: an award at 75%-80% or above overall, with a minimum of 7.5-8 in three written subjects including two science subjects.

In addition, all applicants are required to demonstrate proficiency in English Language. We accept a score of 7.0 or 70% at Year 7 in English Language in the EB or a separate English Language qualification such as IELTS 6.5 in each component.

AQA Baccalaureate

The University recognises the benefits of the AQA Baccalaureate and the opportunities it provides for applicants to develop independent study and research skills.

In making offers, the University will focus on the three A Levels taken within the AQA Baccalaureate. Students need to check the standard A Level requirements for their chosen course.

The units of broader study, enrichment activities and the Extended Project are considered to be valuable elements of the AQA Baccalaureate and we would therefore strongly encourage students to draw upon these experiences within their personal statement.

Other international entry requirements

We accept a range of qualifications from different countries. For these and general requirements including English language see Accepted entry qualifications from your country

Foundation year

The University recognises a number of foundation programmes as suitable for entry to this undergraduate programme:

Applicants completing the INTO Manchester International Foundation Programme in partnership with The University of Manchester are required to achieve a minimum of AAB with grades AA in two sciences (preferably Biology and Chemistry), grade B in a 3rd subject (excluding EAP) and an EAP score of B in every component.

Applicants completing the NCUK International Foundation Year are required to achieve a minimum of AAB or 75% overall with grades AA or 75% in two sciences (preferably Biology and Chemistry), grade B or 65% in a 3rd subject (excluding EAP) and an EAP score of B or 65% in every component.

All applicants resident or studying in the UK are required to attend an interview.

Applicants studying other foundation programmes should contact ug.biosciences@manchester.ac.uk  to check if their qualification is recognised for entry to this programme and for specific entry requirements.

Pearson BTEC qualifications

Pearson BTEC Level 3 National Extended Diploma

We consider the National Extended Diploma in Applied Science with grades DDD for entry when it is taken with one science A-level with grade A.

Pearson BTEC Level 3 National Diploma

We consider the National Diploma in Applied Science with grades DD for entry when it is taken with two A-levels including grade A in a science subject and a minimum of grade B in any other subject.

Pearson BTEC Level 3 National Foundation Diploma

We consider the National Foundation Diploma in any subject with grade D for entry when it is taken with two science A-levels (minimum AB required).

Pearson BTEC Level 3 National Extended Certificate

We consider the National Extended Certificate in any subject with grade D for entry when it is taken with two science A-levels (minimum AB required).

Pearson BTEC Level 3 National Certificate

We do not consider the National Certificate for entry to this course.

Legacy BTEC qualifications

The University of Manchester welcomes applications from students who have achieved legacy BTEC qualifications (pre-2016) such as the BTEC Extended Diploma, BTEC Diploma and BTEC Subsidiary Diploma (with grade D or above) and two science A-levels (minimum AB required).

We do not consider the BTEC Certificate for entry to this course.

If you require further clarification about the acceptability of this qualification please contact ug.biosciences@manchester.ac.uk .

OCR Cambridge Technical qualifications

Cambridge Level 3 Technical Extended Diploma (CTEC)

We consider all the Cambridge Level 3 Technicals (except the Cambridge Level 3 Technical Certificate) with grade D or above for entry when it is taken with two science A-levels (minimum AB required).

Cambridge Level 3 Technical Diploma (CTEC)

We consider all the Cambridge Level 3 Technicals (except the Cambridge Level 3 Technical Certificate) with grade D or above for entry when it is taken with two science A-levels (minimum AB required).

Cambridge Level 3 Technical Foundation Diploma (CTEC)

We consider all the Cambridge Level 3 Technicals (except the Cambridge Level 3 Technical Certificate) with grade D or above for entry when it is taken with two science A-levels (minimum AB required).

Cambridge Level 3 Technical Extended Certificate (CTEC)

We consider all the Cambridge Level 3 Technicals (except the Cambridge Level 3 Technical Certificate) with grade D or above for entry when it is taken with two science A-levels (minimum AB required).

Cambridge Level 3 Technical Certificate (CTEC)

We do not accept the Cambridge Level 3 Technical Certificate (CTEC) for entry to this course.

Legacy CTEC qualifications

The University of Manchester welcomes applications from students who have achieved legacy CTEC qualifications (pre-2016) such as the CTEC Extended Diploma, CTEC Diploma and CTEC Subsidiary Diploma (with grade D or above) and two science A-levels (minimum AB required).

We do not consider the CETC Certificate for entry to this course.

If you require further clarification about the acceptability of this qualification please contact ug.biosciences@manchester.ac.uk .

Access to HE Diploma

We require a QAA-recognised Access to HE Diploma (a minimum of 60 credits overall with at least 45 at Level 3), with merit or distinction in a subject area relevant to the chosen course.

The level 3 units must be made up of 15 credits in Biology with a Distinction grade, 15 credits in Chemistry with a Distinction grade and a further 15 credits with Distinction.

We will also consider applications from applicants whose course has allowed only 12 credits at Level 3 in Biology, with the remaining three credits at Level 3 with Distinction in Chemistry, Physics or Maths.

Cambridge Pre-U

We consider applicants offering Pre-U Principal Subjects, or a mix of Pre-U and A Level subjects, provided a minimum of three distinct subjects overall is taken.

We require D3,D3,D3 to D3, M1, M1 in the Cambridge Pre-U, including Chemistry and one other science subject. You must have a D3 in one of the science subjects.

The University welcomes and recognises the value of the Cambridge Pre-U Global Perspectives and Research (GPR) and the opportunities it provides for applicants to develop independent study and research skills. However, the qualification will not form part of your offer conditions.

If you require further clarification about the acceptability of this qualification please contact the Academic School(s) you plan to apply to.

Extended Project Qualification (EPQ)

The University recognises the benefits of the Extended Project Qualification (EPQ) and the opportunities it provides for applicants to develop independent study and research skills. Although the Extended Project will not be included in the conditions of your offer, we strongly encourage you to provide information about the EPQ in your personal statement and at interview. A number of our academic Schools may also choose to take your performance in the EPQ into account should places be available in August for applicants who narrowly miss the entry grades for their chosen course.

Core Maths

The University welcomes and recognises the value of Level 3 core mathematics qualifications (e.g. AQA Certificate in Mathematical Studies). 

Core Mathematics is not a compulsory element of post-16 study and as a result we will not normally include it in the conditions of any offer made to the student. However, if a student chooses to undertake a core mathematics qualification this may be taken into account when we consider their application, particularly for certain non-science courses with a distinct mathematical or statistical element.

We advise students to contact the academic School, who will clarify whether their specific portfolio of qualifications is acceptable for entry on to their chosen course.

Home-schooled applicants

If you are a student who has followed a non-standard educational route, e.g. you have been educated at home; your application will be considered against the standard entry criteria of the course for which you are applying. You will be required to demonstrate that you meet the specified academic entry requirements of the course. We will also require a reference from somebody who knows you well enough, in an official capacity, to write about you and your suitability for higher education. If you are a home schooled student and would like further information or advice please contact the academic School for your chosen course who will be able to help you. 

Non-standard educational routes

Mature students are some of our most well-equipped learners, bringing skills and attributes gained from work, family and other life experiences.  Students come from a whole array of backgrounds, study every kind of course, undertake full-time and part-time learning and are motivated by career intentions as well as personal interest.  There is no such thing as a typical mature student at Manchester.  The application process is the same as for other prospective undergraduates.  If you require further clarification about the acceptability of the qualifications you hold please contact the academic School(s) you plan to apply to.  Further information for mature students can be found here ( http://www.manchester.ac.uk/study/undergraduate/mature-students/ )

English language

All applicants to the University (from the UK and Overseas) are required to show evidence of English Language proficiency.  The minimum English Language requirement for this course is either:

  • GCSE/iGCSE English Language grade C (or 4 in the newly reformed GCSEs in England)
  • IELTS 6.5 (with no less than 6.5 in any component)
  • An acceptable equivalent qualification.

Please note that if you hold English as a second language iGCSE qualification, we may also require you to offer one of our acceptable equivalent English Language qualifications or achieve a higher grade in your iGCSE than the one stated above. Please contact the academic School for clarification.

The UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) requires that every student from outside the UK and the EU must show evidence of a minimum level of English Language in order to be granted a UK visa (Tier 4 visa) to study at undergraduate or postgraduate level. This level is often referred to as the 'B2 level'.

Additionally, our individual Schools may ask for specific English Language proficiency levels that are necessary for their academic programmes. In most cases these requirements are likely to be higher than the B2 level. Further information about our English Language policy, including a list of some of the English Language qualifications we accept, can be found  here .

English language test validity

Some English Language test results are only valid for two years. Your English Language test report must be valid on the start date of the course.

Application and selection

How to apply

Apply through UCAS .

You should not usually apply for more than one of the biological and biomedical sciences courses offered by The University of Manchester. Please contact us for advice if you are planning to do so.

Advice to applicants

We would normally only consider applicants who obtained the relevant qualification within the three years prior to entry.

Applicants who have left education for more than three years would normally be recommended to take an Access course or exceptionally considered for the  Foundation Year .

Applicants should contact the Admissions Office to discuss their particular circumstances.

You should not usually apply for more than one of the biological and biomedical sciences courses offered by The University of Manchester. Please contact us for advice if you are planning to do so.

How your application is considered

Applications from outside the UK are considered on the basis of the UCAS form; some candidates may be interviewed.

Interview requirements

All applicants who live in the EU are normally interviewed in person at the University.

Applicants who live outside the EU may be interviewed either in person at the University, by Skype or by telephone.

Deferrals

Applications for deferred entry are considered equally to other applications up to the point of confirmation. Deferred entry is granted on the discretion of admissions staff, and is normally granted for one year only and 2 years at the maximum. Some English Language test results, such as IELTS or TOEFL, are only valid for two years from the test date.

Policy for applicants who resit their qualifications

The University will consider applicants who have re-sat individual modules. If you have re-sat your final examinations we may consider your application in exceptional circumstances. Please contact us to discuss this before you apply.

Re-applications

If you applied in the previous year and your application was not successful you may apply again. Your application will be considered against the standard course entry criteria for that year of entry. In your new application you should demonstrate how your application has improved. We may draw upon all information from your previous applications or any previous registrations at the University as a student when assessing your suitability for your chosen course. If you are applying for a place for the same year of entry through UCAS Extra, you should provide additional evidence of your suitability for the course. If you are applying through clearing you are required to meet the clearing requirements. In both UCAS Extra and clearing the places will be subject to availability.

Course details

Course description

Our BSc Pharmacology course explores drug actions on living systems - where they act, what they do, how they are metabolised, and how they exert toxic effects.

Understanding all of this requires studying drug actions at levels ranging from the single molecule to the whole organism.

As a result, our course includes aspects of molecular biology, chemistry, physiology and neuroscience, and you will examine both the actions of current drugs and the development of new drugs throughout the course.

Special features

Study abroad

You can apply to spend one semester in Year 2  studying abroad  through an exclusive exchange with Stony Brook University in the US.

A range of study options

You can extend your degree by a year to undertake an  integrated master's , gain  industrial/professional experience  or learn a  modern language .

It is possible to broaden your degree by taking units from the University College , Business and Management for all Programmes or the University Language Centre in exchange for a few units from your degree.

Foundation year available

You can prepare for the full degree course if you do not have the appropriate qualifications for direct entry by undertaking our  foundation course  first.

Flexibility to transfer between courses

You can transfer between most of our biological sciences degree courses at the end of your first year or, in some cases, later.

Teaching and learning

You will benefit from a wide range of teaching and learning methods that suit the content and aims of each course unit.

These range from lectures and tutorials to practicals and research projects, including the  final year project .

Find out more about how you will learn and see a typical Year 1 timetable on our  teaching and learning  page.

Coursework and assessment

Assessment methods vary widely to suit the nature of the course unit and each level of study. 

  • Lecture units are usually assessed by written exam (multiple choice or essay-based), which are held at the end of an academic semester in either January or May/June.
  • Field courses are usually assessed via oral and written presentations, group work and/or projects.
  • Practical units are usually assessed by experimental report and/or short written assignment and/or written exam.
  • The proportion of independent study assignments increases during each year of study.

Year 1

Lecture units are usually assessed by e-learning activities during the unit and multiple choice exams at the end of the semester. 

If you wish to continue on the modern language or industrial/professional experience course, you must normally obtain a mean mark of at least 60% in Year 1.

Year 1 contributes 10% to your overall degree mark.

Year 2

Lecture units are usually assessed by essay-based exam.

Year 2 contributes 30% to your overall degree mark.

Final year

Lecture units are usually assessed by essay-based exam. Students also take two 'honours' papers: degree programme-specific examinations comprising essays and data-handling problems.

A significant part of the year (accounting for one-quarter of the overall degree mark) is the project, which is assessed by literature review and a written report.

The final year contributes 60% to your overall degree mark.

Course unit details

This course is modular. You will study compulsory course units and choose some optional units.

Most units are assigned 10 credits and you will take 120 credits each year.

Course content for year 1

You will gain a broad introduction to biological sciences, covering key concepts such as:

  • pharmacology
  • biochemistry
  • genetics
  • anatomy
  • physiology
  • neuroscience
  • molecular biology.

Year 1 also provides an introduction to the essential data handling and laboratory skills required for all biological scientists.

Course units for year 1

The course unit details given below are subject to change, and are the latest example of the curriculum available on this course of study.

TitleCodeCredit ratingMandatory/optional
Academic Tutorials Year 1 BIOL10000 10 Mandatory
Biochemistry BIOL10212 10 Mandatory
Molecular Biology BIOL10221 10 Mandatory
From Molecules to Cells BIOL10232 10 Mandatory
Introduction to Laboratory Science BIOL10401 10 Mandatory
Introduction to Experimental Biology - Human Biology BIOL10422 10 Mandatory
Writing and Referencing Skills (online unit) BIOL10741 0 Mandatory
Body Systems BIOL10811 10 Mandatory
Drugs: From Molecules to Man BIOL10822 10 Mandatory
Excitable Cells: the Foundations of Neuroscience BIOL10832 10 Mandatory
Biodiversity BIOL10511 10 Optional
Genes, Evolution and Development BIOL10521 10 Optional
Microbes, Man and the Environment BIOL10532 10 Optional
Chemistry for Bioscientists 1 CHEM10021 10 Optional
Chemistry for Bioscientists 2 CHEM10022 10 Optional
Fundamentals of Chemistry CHEM10111 10 Optional
Science & the Modern World HSTM10221 10 Optional
Bodies in History: An introduction to the History of Medicine HSTM10272 10 Optional
Displaying 10 of 18 course units for year 1

Course content for year 2

You will continue your studies in greater depth and begin to specialise. You will also undertake a dissertation.

In the Research Skills unit, you have the opportunity to carry out techniques that are widely used in current biological science research.

Course units for year 2

The course unit details given below are subject to change, and are the latest example of the curriculum available on this course of study.

TitleCodeCredit ratingMandatory/optional
Academic Tutorials Year 2 BIOL20000 10 Mandatory
Pharmacology RSM BIOL20932 10 Mandatory
Human Sciences EDM BIOL21061 10 Mandatory
Dissertation BIOL21090 10 Mandatory
Endocrinology BIOL21261 10 Mandatory
Clinical Drug Development BIOL21302 10 Mandatory
Drugs & the Brain BIOL21312 10 Mandatory
Membrane Excitability: Ion Channels & Transporters in Action BIOL21321 10 Mandatory
Molecules and Cells in Human Disease BIOL21351 10 Mandatory
Drugs: Models & Mechanisms BIOL21412 10 Mandatory
`Omic Technologies & Resources BIOL21152 10 Optional
Immunology BIOL21242 10 Optional
Gut and Renal Human Physiology BIOL21272 10 Optional
Haematology BIOL21361 10 Optional
Displaying 10 of 14 course units for year 2

Course content for year 3

Final year topics reflect the current hotspots of bioscience endeavour and the research interests of our staff, and are constantly being updated.

You will undertake an independent in-depth  research project  that may involve supervised practical work in a laboratory, or you may choose to work on e-learning, educational, data analysis, bioinformatics or enterprise topics. 

Please note the course units listed below are just a small selection and do not represent the number and breadth of course units available on this course.

Course units for year 3

The course unit details given below are subject to change, and are the latest example of the curriculum available on this course of study.

TitleCodeCredit ratingMandatory/optional
Academic Tutorials Year 3 BIOL30000 0 Mandatory
Projects BIOL30030 30 Mandatory
Project Literature Review BIOL30101 10 Mandatory
Advanced Ion Transport (E) BIOL31591 10 Mandatory
Toxins, Toxicants & Toxicity (E) BIOL31602 10 Mandatory
Ion Transport in Health & Disease (E) BIOL31622 10 Mandatory
Neuropharmacology of Human Health (E) BIOL31671 10 Mandatory
Biochemical Basis of Disease (E) BIOL31332 10 Optional
Advanced Immunology (E) BIOL31371 10 Optional
Cell Signalling (E) BIOL31441 10 Optional
Bioethics: Contemporary Issues in Science & Biomedicine (E) BIOL31522 10 Optional
Human Reproductive Biology (E) BIOL31561 10 Optional
Advanced Endocrinology (L) BIOL31571 10 Optional
Cardiovascular Systems (E) BIOL31582 10 Optional
Neuroinflammation in Health & Disease (E) BIOL31612 10 Optional
Madness and Society HSTM30832 10 Optional
Tools and Techniques for Enterprise MCEL30001 10 Optional
Tools & Techniques for Enterprise MCEL30002 10 Optional
Advanced Technology Enterprise MCEL30011 10 Optional
Advanced Technology Enterprise MCEL30012 10 Optional
Essential Enterprise UCIL22001 10 Optional
Essential Enterprise UCIL22002 10 Optional
Displaying 10 of 22 course units for year 3

What our students say

The main thing I enjoyed about the Pharmacology course is the practical element. It gives a lot of lab time, learning various techniques to develop us into competent pharmacologists.

Ben Walker

Find out more about what it's like to study at Manchester on the  Biology, Medicine and Health Student Blog .

Facilities

Learning facilities

Our modern teaching labs are equipped for a range of biological and biomedical techniques. The following are just a few of the techniques you could undertake during your degree:

  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • DNA sequencing
  • gel electrophoresis
  • spectrophotometry
  • dissection and histology
  • electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG)
  • immunofluorescence microscopy.

Our computing facilities include access to over 200 PCs in dedicated clusters and e-learning tools including online lecture notes, discussion boards, lecture podcasts and quizzes.

You will also have access to the University's other  facilities for undergraduate students .

Research facilities

As a final year student, you have the opportunity to undertake a project in the labs of our world-class bioscience researchers.

To support our research, we have extensive  research facilities  equipped with high-quality technology.

Disability support

Practical support and advice for current students and applicants is available from the Disability Advisory and Support Service. Email: dass@manchester.ac.uk

Careers

Career opportunities

Our graduates go into a range of careers.

Many of our graduates secure jobs as researchers working in universities, pharmaceutical and bioscience companies and institutes.

The in-vivo training that these graduates have undertaken makes them especially attractive to pharmaceutical companies.

Some of our graduates progress into laboratory-based careers in clinical or technical roles that do not involve research.

The transferable skills you will develop will also leave you well-equipped for a wide range of careers outside of the lab, such as marketing.

Find out more about  how we help our students prepare for the workplace  and the careers our graduates go into within and outside the lab.