Replacement, reduction and refinement case studies

Manchester scientists regularly carry out research aimed at finding ways to avoid the use of animals, decrease their use and minimise their suffering. This is known as the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. In this section, we take a closer look at some of the work our scientists are doing in this area.

Case studies

Here is a selection of case studies that highlight the University's commitment to the replacement, reduction and refinement of the use of animals in research.