MPharm Pharmacy

Year of entry: 2022

Course unit details:
Immunity, Infection and Respiratory system

Course unit fact file
Unit code PHAR22001
Credit rating 60
Unit level Undefined
Teaching period(s) Semester 1
Offered by Division of Pharmacy and Optometry
Available as a free choice unit? No

Overview

The unit is split into two 6-week blocks. Block 1 (Infection and Inflammation) uses infectious and inflammatory disease examples to integrate scientific, clinical and professional learning. Block 2 (Respiratory system) develops student’s knowledge and understanding using respiratory disease to integrate learning.

Conceptual understanding is developed through a series of “core concepts” lectures which provide learning in the threshold concepts mapped to year 2 of the programme. Core knowledge is then built using a flipped classroom approach, supported by EBL workshops in which learning is consolidated. This learning is furthermore supplemented by a series of laboratory practicals, professional skills workshops and placements in which learning from EBL and lectures is applied to increasingly complex scenarios to develop practical, communication, decision-making and prescribing skills.

Aims

The unit aims to:

Build students’ confidence and understanding of medicines’ actions and the human body. This knowledge is applied in order to understand infectious disease and the body’s response to infection, inflammatory processes and the structure, function and malfunction and the therapeutic management of diseases of the respiratory system. The unit also develops practical and professional skills important in becoming a pharmacist which are relevant to the medicines used and clinical management of infection, inflammatory conditions and respiratory disease.

The unit initially focusses on infection and inflammation, where students learn about the key principles of infectious disease and the immune system before applying this learning to common infections and inflammatory disorders (skin, GI tract and urinary tract). In the latter part of the unit, the respiratory system is introduced which includes learning about the structure and function of the lungs, before learning is applied to understand common respiratory tract disease (asthma, COPD, respiratory tract infection and lung cancer). This learning is supplemented by laboratory classes to develop analytical skills and students further develop their learning about the legal, ethical and professional aspects of practising pharmacy. Students will also work in teams to develop their leadership skills and will further build their research and written communication skills. Placements increase in Year 2, to apply their learning to practice and to build competence in communication and working as part of a pharmacy or multiprofessional team.

Teaching and learning methods

The teaching and learning philosophy for the MPharm places an emphasis on learner-centred rather than teacher-centred approaches. Learning is therefore structured to maximise guided self-directed learning, with enquiry driven project work and EBL workshops provided to support greater conceptual understanding of the material and deep, rather than superficial learning. This helps students prepare for their future careers by helping them to develop independence, confidence and resilience. A wide range of teaching and learning activity is included to meet the learning needs of a diverse range of students:

Core concepts lectures: A very small number of didactic lectures are included to provide a step-by-step guide to the threshold concepts in pharmacy 
Online learning: All guided self-directed learning in year 2 is provided via the VLE Blackboard. This consists of videos, bespoke elearning packages, NHS elearning (e.g. Skills for health), factsheets and directed reading (which can be downloaded). 
EBL workshops: All learning is brought together and consolidated in a series of multidisciplinary integrated sessions. Workshops are led by a team of staff who act as specialist facilitators, directing student learning via discussion of case studies and project work.
Practical classes: A series of practical classes spans the first three years of the MPharm. In year 2, students expand their understanding and application of experimental design and interpretation of findings. Practical classes are mapped to core concepts lectures and EBL workshops to ensure learning is applied to practice as a pharmacist
Professional skills classes: These span the full 4 years of the MPharm to ensure students are prepared to become prescribers after their foundation year. Classes focus on further developing consultation skills, assessment and examination skills and clinical decision-making. Regular role play and interaction with medical actors is used to increase confidence and to ensure students receive tailored feedback.
MyDispense: This is an online platform utilising real-world cases to recreate prescription processing and to apply pharmacy law. It is used with increasing complexity in all four years of the MPharm course to develop skills in clinical checking, dispensing and accuracy checking.
Placements: Compulsory workplace placements are provided in hospital and community pharmacy and GP practice settings in year 2, to gain practical experience in providing pharmacy services and to apply learning on infection, inflammation and respiratory disease to pharmacy practice. 
Academic adviser meetings: Students meet with their named academic adviser twice per semester in formal timetabled meetings. Academic advisers support students with their personal and professional development throughout the MPharm course. 
 

Knowledge and understanding

 

Describe how pathogens cause disease and how they overcome the innate host defence

Demonstrate an understanding of basic concepts of epidemiology:  how infections are propagated.

Describe the differences in cell wall structure between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Describe the shape, Gram reaction and major taxonomic groups of clinically important bacteria.

Identify biochemical targets for selective antimicrobial activity

Describe the range and mechanism of action of a variety of antimicrobials

Describe the fundamentals of vaccination and named examples of successful vaccination campaigns

Demonstrate an awareness and understanding of recent vaccine controversies

Describe the UK routine childhood immunisation schedule and give examples of travel vaccination programmes in the UK

Demonstrate an understanding of, and describe the pathogenicity, epidemiology, management and prevention of urinary tract infection, H pylori-associated gastrointestinal disease, viral and bacterial skin and eye infections and viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections

Demonstrate an understanding of hypersensitivity reactions and the concept of allergy

Discuss the management of hayfever and allergic conditions of the skin

Describe how the immune system might cause disease

Discuss the management of inflammatory bowel disease, as an exemplar of immune system disease

Discuss why intervention is needed in oral health

Demonstrate an understanding of different formulations for parenteral application with particular focus on the delivery route (IV, IM, SC, infustion) including nano-formulation.

Demonstrate an understanding of, and be able to apply formulation principles and restrictions for sterile injectable formulations (isotonicity, osmolarity, pyrogens, endotoxins).

Describe excipients for injectable formulations with appreciation of their specific characteristics.

Describe packaging for injectable formulations

Demonstrate an understanding of sterilisation methods, sterility regulations and tests as outlined in the British Pharmacopoeia

Demonstrate an understanding of the identification and description of particle size and shape

Describe methods for delivery of drugs to the nose and lung

Explain how local anatomy and physiology influences formulation choice

Demonstrate an understanding of why specific formulations are most suited to this route and why, and their constituent excipients are required

Describe how pathogens cause disease and how they overcome the innate host defence

Demonstrate an understanding of basic concepts of epidemiology:  how infections are propagated.

Describe the differences in cell wall structure between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Describe the shape, Gram reaction and major taxonomic groups of clinically important bacteria.

Identify biochemical targets for selective antimicrobial activity

Describe the range and mechanism of action of a variety of antimicrobials

Describe the fundamentals of vaccination and named examples of successful vaccination campaigns

Demonstrate an awareness and understanding of recent vaccine controversies

Describe the UK routine childhood immunisation schedule and give examples of travel vaccination programmes in the UK

Demonstrate an understanding of, and describe the pathogenicity, epidemiology, management and prevention of urinary tract infection, H pylori-associated gastrointestinal disease, viral and bacterial skin and eye infections and viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections

Demonstrate an understanding of hypersensitivity reactions and the concept of allergy

Discuss the management of hayfever and allergic conditions of the skin

Describe how the immune system might cause disease

 

Intellectual skills

Apply and integrate learning from previous MPharm units to deepen understanding of new materials encountered in this unit

Use a range of clinical reference sources to aid decision-making in providing pharmaceutical care to patients with an infective, inflammatory or respiratory condition

Conduct a critical appraisal of an existing evidence base for an infective, inflammatory or respiratory condition

Use clinical reasoning concepts, ‘making things visible’, ‘thinking routines’, clinical reasoning theories and the role of clinical reasoning in safe and effective healthcare

Apply pharmacological principles to be able to recommend how to manage skin infections, allergies, coughs, colds and sore throats including OTC management and when to refer

Apply knowledge of cancer and respiratory disease to identify symptoms that may be indicative of cancer, respiratory disease or infection requiring specialist intervention. Understand how this identification of "red flag" symptoms is integrated into clinical practice

Choose and theoretically apply the appropriate test or assay described in the British Pharmacopoeia to ensure product quality and safety

Demonstrate how to process data (mean, SD, CI and plot data) and interpret data from common respiratory parameters e.g. PEFR

Apply pharmacological principles to understand the toxicities of key drug examples used to treat infection and respiratory disease

Critically evaluate theories and practices of leadership and associated topics

 Use appropriate statistical tests to analyse continuous data

Practical skills

Show competence in determining and analysing minimum inhibitory concentrations of a panel of antimicrobial agents.

Extrapolate these findings to clinical practice and patient outcomes

Use appropriate aseptic technique to maintain sterility of a pharmaceutical product according to the British Pharmacopoeia

Demonstrate the ability to determine powder flow characteristics and perform related calculations

Demonstrate the ability to perform mixing unit operations and assess the degree of mixing

Show competence in assessing particle size and shape using microscopy

Understand how to effectively use a MDI (metered-dose inhaler) and be able to accurately demonstrate this technique

Accurately measure common respiratory parameters (e.g. PEFR) using spirometry equipment

Use light microscopy to visualise and understand the (patho)physiology of the respiratory system

Conduct a person-centred consultation for medicines reconciliation

Use digital resources (e.g. summary care records, PMR) to construct a medicines history for medicines reconciliation

Conduct a person-centred consultation (face-to-face and remote) integrating the principles of shared decision making and using patient decision aids to initiate a new medicine and discuss the condition it is being used to manage in context and high-level principles for good practice in remote consultations and prescribing

Generate prescriptions that meet legal and regulatory requirements and the clinical needs of the person

Understand the principles behind, and to be able to perform and record, the following observations/investigations/procedures:

Infection control, including hand washing

Temperature

Respiratory rate

Pulse oximetry

Peak flow

Blood glucose (capillary)

Intramuscular injection (vaccination)

Transferable skills and personal qualities

Empower a person to recognise their own goals and support them to achieve them in pursuit of independent living

Take responsibility for their own and support others’ development

Understand the (respiratory) patient’s perspective on their condition and their care

Assessment methods

Formative

EBL case-based class work

Eportfolio – practical and professional skills, placements and personal development (supervised learning events)

Mock integrated case-based exam

Pharmacy progress MCQ test

Summative

Pass/Fail components do not attract a grade, but are worth 12 credits in total over the course of the year. Students may take the full academic year to collect sufficient eportfolio evidence to pass.

Calculations exam (1 credit)

Professional skills (Prescription Process, Prescribing, Consultation) eportfolio (3 credits)

Personal development eportfolio (2 credits)

Integrated case-based examination (36 credits)

Individual coursework  - integrated case-based assignment (9 credits)

Group coursework – multimedia presentation and defence of EBL project (9 credits)

Feedback methods

Formative

EBL case-based class work - Feedback provided within EBL class

Eportfolio - Feedback provided within practical and professional classes, on placement and by academic adviser

Mock integrated case-based exam - Self-marked using mark scheme. Drop-in session for Q&A

MCQ test - Feedback on performance after February exam board

Summative

Calculations - Drop-in session for all students to review their paper. Additional support for those who have failed.

Professional Skills - Feedback provided within professional skills classes

Personal Development - Feedback provided by academic adviser

Integrated case-based examinations - EBL session devoted to self and peer evaluation of exam performance

Individual Coursework - Written feedback provided within 15 days

Group Coursework - Written feedback provided within 15 days

Recommended reading

The MPharm uses an EBL approach to teaching and learning. As such, learners are required to engage with a number of self-directed learning activities including reading. In year 2, reading material is provided for students by staff but they are encouraged to search for their own additional resources to supplement learning. Directed reading consists of up to 8 hours per week from pharmacy journals, ebooks, clinical resources (e.g. BNF, Stockleys Drug Interactions) and NHS elearning (e.g. CPPE, eLfH, Skills for Health). As clinical practice is constantly changing, this material will be reviewed each academic year, and then again before each session is delivered, to ensure it remains relevant.

Study hours

Scheduled activity hours
Lectures 40
Practical classes & workshops 112

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