Dual-award between The University of Manchester and The University of Melbourne

The University of Manchester has existing, highly productive links with The University of Melbourne and now wishes to extend this relationship to our Global Doctoral Research Network (GOLDEN) by establishing collaborative postgraduate research projects.

What is a dual-award programme?

This dual-award programme offers candidates the opportunity to apply for a project with a strong supervisory team both in Manchester and in Melbourne. A dual-award is a PhD programme which leads to separate awards from two partner institutions. PhD candidates will be registered at both Manchester and Melbourne and must complete all of the requirements of the PhD programme in both the home and partner university.

PhD candidates will begin their PhD in Manchester and will then spend at least 12 months in Melbourne. The amount of time spent at Manchester and Melbourne will be dependent upon the project and candidates will work with their supervisory team in the first year to set out the structure of the project.

PhD candidates on a dual-award programme can experience research at two quality institutions and applying for a dual-award programme will support you to develop a global perspective and will open the door to new job opportunities. Boost your intercultural skills and experience the opportunities studying in Melbourne and Manchester provide by applying to one of our available projects. 

Funding

The University of Manchester has six studentships available and is now offering candidates the opportunity to apply to one of the projects below to start in September 2021. 

You will spend at least 12 months at each institution and will receive a dual PhD at the end of the three and a half year programme.

Funding for the programme will include tuition fees, an annual stipend at the minimum Research Councils UK rate (approximately £15,285 for 2020/21), a research training grant and student travel to Melbourne.  

How to apply

Students must meet the entry requirements of both universities to be accepted and will be registered at both institutions for the duration of the programme.

Applicants should hold the minimum entry requirements for the PhD programme in the relevant discipline for both The University of Manchester and The University of Melbourne. The entry criteria for The University of Melbourne can be found on their ‘How to apply’ webpage.

Applicants interested in the Manchester-based projects are encouraged to contact the named Manchester supervisor for an initial discussion before submitting an official application form.

Deadline for applications: 12 March 2021 for Manchester-based projects.

We have a step by step guide to help you apply.

Projects available

Cloud-aerosol-meteorology Interactions in Shallow Convection: Comparing the Southern Ocean against the North Atlantic.

This project will be based at The University of Manchester with a 12 month stay at The University of Melbourne.

Shallow convective clouds are commonly observed over mid- and high-latitude oceans and have well been documented for their distinctive morphology. However, little is known about the properties of these clouds. Knowledge on any hemispheric contrast in these systems is even more limited. Unlike the polluted Northern Hemisphere oceans, the Southern Ocean atmosphere is far removed from human and continental sources of aerosols and dust, close to pre-industrial conditions. As such, understanding of any hemispheric contrast in cloud properties is key to constraining the uncertainty in estimating Earth’s climate sensitivity to increased industrial emissions from the historical record.

The objectives of this PhD project are to: (1) characterise the properties of shallow convective clouds over the Southern Ocean and the North Atlantic; (2) understand how the examined cloud properties vary with meteorology, surface and environmental conditions, and aerosol characteristics, and (3) identify key dynamical, thermodynamical, and microphysical processes that define the nature of these clouds.

The project structure will be to take both existing and emerging in-situ aircraft observations and supplemented datasets to characterise the macrophysical and microphysical properties of shallow convective clouds to examine how they vary under different meteorological, environmental, and aerosol conditions. Findings from the Southern Ocean will be compared against the North Atlantic counterpart to explore any systematic hemispheric differences in the examined properties and to elucidate any human impacts. Representative cases will be identified, and idealised simulations will be performed with a state-of-the-art cloud model to understand what dynamical, thermodynamical, and microphysical details are needed to reproduce observations.

Ideal PhD candidates must demonstrate a genuine interest in meteorology, strong computing skills and expertise in analysing large datasets. Graduates with a strong academic record (eg Honours Class I or equivalent) in Physics, Atmospheric Science, Mathematics, Engineering or an equivalent quantitative discipline are particularly encouraged to apply.

Supervision team

Precipitation in shallow convection: Comparing the Southern Ocean against the North Atlantic.

This project will be based at The University of Melbourne with a 12 month stay at The University of Manchester.

The best constructions of the Earth's climate continue to be challenged by large errors in the energy budget over high-latitude oceans, with large biases in precipitation estimates directly contributing to these errors. A poorly represented energy budget not only limits the ability of climate models to simulate future climate in these regions, it also has farreaching impacts across the globe via key climate processes such as carbon uptake, heat and momentum transport, and air-sea feedback.

The objectives of this PhD project are to (1) quantify the precipitation (including the frequency, intensity and thermodynamic phase) generated from the shallow mesoscale cellular convection (MCC) commonly present over the mid- and high-latitude oceans, and (2) develop a fundamental understanding of key physical processes that underpin the production of precipitation in shallow convection.

The project structure will be to take both existing and emerging remote-sensing observations and aircraft data to develop a precipitation climatology for open and closed MCC over the Southern Ocean and the North Atlantic. Representative cases will be simulated with a convection-permitting model to investigate the meteorology that underlies the evolution of these systems and associated precipitation. Connection between the nature of the MCC and aerosol concentrations will also be explored to elucidate any systematic hemispheric contrast and human impacts.

Ideal PhD candidates must demonstrate a genuine interest in meteorology, strong computing skills and expertise in analysing large datasets. Graduates with a strong academic record (eg Honours Class I or equivalent) in Physics, Atmospheric Science, Mathematics, Engineering or an equivalent quantitative discipline are particularly encouraged to apply.

Supervision team

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A novel graphene and silicon nano-particle hybrid anode material for Li-ion batteries.

This project will be based at The University of Manchester with a 12 month stay at The University of Melbourne.

Graphene, the monolayer carbon first isolated in Manchester, has a unique combination of many superlative properties that makes it an ideal batter electrode material. Briefly, graphene possesses high strength combined with flexibility, high electrical conductivity, high thermal conductivity and high specific surface area. Graphene is currently being explored for a number of different kinds of battery and supercapacitor electrodes, including for novel batteries such as Li-S and Li-Air batteries.

A Li-silicon battery is a sub-class of Li-ion battery which uses silicon as anode material for Li ion charge carriers. They have higher specific capacity compared to graphite, which is the traditional electrode material, however has the disadvantage of a large volume change compared to graphite as well as poorer electrical conductivity. One strategy to improve the specific capacity of Si anodes even further while accommodating the volume expansion is to use silicon nano-particles and nano-wires. Furthermore, a hybrid anode of graphite and Si nano-particles can further improve both the volume expansion, conductivity and capacity of a Si anode.

In this project, we propose that a hybrid anode comprised of graphene and silicon nanoparticles will achieve the most intimate blend of these two promising anode materials, maximising the benefits of each and the synergy between the two.

 A student eligible for this project will have a degree in materials science, chemistry, chemical engineering or equivalent. During the course of the project, the student will gain expertise in production of graphene materials such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, characterisation of graphene materials by electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, thermal stability and degradation, etc, and routes to graphene functionalisation. The student will also gain expertise in Li-chemistry batteries, anode materials, electro-chemical characterisation and battery assembly and characterisation.

The student will spend 30 months at The University of Manchester, working in the Nanofunctional Materials Group, which has world-leading expertise in graphene materials and composites production, characterisation and applications. The student will also spend 12 months of their PhD at The University of Melbourne in the Ellis group, where they will interact with world leading experts in Li-Si batteries and other energy storage materials and systems.

Supervision team

Improving energy outputs from flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters.

This project will be based at The University of Melbourne with a 12 month stay at The University of Manchester.

Energy is all around us but not all is currently harvested. With an increasing emergence of always-on, portable, wearable and implantable electronic devices, it is of great importance to investigate the viability of sustainable energy harvesting technologies. Materials which generate electricity through mechanical motion, termed piezoelectrics, offer a unique opportunity to generate energy on either an on-needs basis or be stored for later use. A piezoelectic material which is of particular significance is the flexible fluoropolymers - allowing energy harvesting through the mechanical bending of the material. The limitation of this however, is current processing techniques required to maximise the piezoelectric effect within these materials is costly and, itself, energy intensive. Thus, this project aims to use 3D printing to print fluoropolymers with nanomaterials that impart different electrostatic interactions within the entire material to produce increased piezoelectricity.

A student eligible for this project will have a degree in materials science, chemistry, chemical engineering or equivalent. During the course of the project, the student will gain expertise in 3D printing of nanocomposites, molecular dynamic simulations, preparation of piezoelectric devices, characterisation of piezoelectric devices by electrical, microscopy and mechanical testing. The student will also gain expertise in flexible energy harvesters, molecular modelling, and device manufacturing.

The successful applicant will spend 30 months at The University of Melbourne working in the Nanotechnology Hub as well as a further 12 months of their PhD at The University of Manchester in the Nanofunctional Materials Group, which has world-leading expertise in nanomaterials and composite production, characterisation and applications

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Do differences in the primary tumour microenvironment and immune response in peripheral blood predict melanoma relapse?

This project will be based at The University of Manchester with a 12 month stay at The University of Melbourne.

Management of resected early stage melanoma remains a challenge. For these patients, individual recurrence risk is low with >75% of patients alive at ten years. However, these patients account for ~50% of people who subsequently develop metastases and die. It is critical to understand better why some melanomas go on to metastasise, whilst others are cured by surgery alone. In addition, biomarkers are needed that can provide an early prediction of which patients will be cured versus those who need additional monitoring or treatment.

This project brings together research teams in Manchester UK and Melbourne Australia to perform an in-depth analysis of the tumour associated adaptive immune system and its association with disease relapse to identify biomarkers for early detection and prediction of recurrence. Ultra-high multiplex imaging of the tumour immune and stromal environment will be performed together with T-cell receptor sequencing to interrogate how differences in the tumour microenvironment at surgery affect likelihood of melanoma relapse. Identified tumour associated T-cell clones will be tracked in longitudinally collected peripheral blood samples to determine how these change in response to disease progression and whether they provide an early indication of relapse.

The student will work closely with scientists from other disciplines including pathology, statistics and bioinformatics and with clinical teams. They will have the opportunity to work on samples collected from large clinical cohorts of patients and as part of a Phase III international trial. They will be an integral part of an inclusive, international and multi-disciplinary team working together to translate research findings to the clinic.

You can email the team for more information: admissions.doctoralacademy@manchester.ac.uk.

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Epigenomic monitoring of residual disease in melanoma using liquid biopsies

This project will be based at The University of Melbourne with a 12 month stay at The University of Manchester.

Melanoma is the cause of most skin cancer deaths worldwide. While surgery and adjuvant therapies are the mainstay of treatment in early melanoma, many patients relapse following treatment, as well as experience profound side effects from therapy. There is a critical need to improve the selection of patients likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy and monitor which patients are likely to relapse following treatment. Many cancers, including melanoma, can release small fragments of their DNA into a patient’s bloodstream (called circulating tumour DNA). 

Circulating tumour DNA analysis can be performed from a simple blood test and may help identify patients with residual disease that has not been eradicated following treatment who are at highest risk of relapse. This project aims to develop a highly sensitive circulating tumour DNA test for patients with melanoma, through the characterisation of circulating tumour DNA methylation patterns, to predict and monitor disease recurrence and effectively guide the delivery of adjuvant therapy to those most likely to benefit. The incorporation of circulating tumour DNA based monitoring in melanoma management has potential to facilitate the development of personalised treatment approaches, providing a powerful tool to significantly improve outcomes from this disease. 

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Diagnosing listening difficulties in children: The relationship between auditory processing, speech processing, language processing, and cognitive abilities in typically developing children.

This project will be based at The University of Manchester with a 12 month stay at The University of Melbourne.

The University of Manchester is seeking applicants for a full time PhD scholarship, in conjunction with The University of Melbourne. This unique opportunity will allow the successful applicant international travel and collaboration opportunities in a reciprocal program facilitating a parallel PhD partnership.

A range of deficits can cause children difficulty in understanding speech in challenging situations, like many classrooms. Currently, it is difficult to determine the cause of these difficulties. Deficits in auditory processing, speech processing, language processing, or cognition, present in similar manners, and can be difficult to test for separately. A systematic approach to differentiate between these causes has been devised. As part of this project the student will contribute to our understanding of how these novel tests relate to one another and are influenced by basic underlying processes.

The Manchester-based project will be responsible for investigating the relationship between the tests of a new clinical test battery for the assessment of listening difficulties in school-aged children in a typically-developing population of school-aged children. The student will also collect normative data sets for children in the UK and Australia. By first understanding underlying relationships between the levels of the test will this PhD project will allow for this clinical test-battery to be implemented into clinical practice including for the potential establishment of a university service in Manchester.

The proposed approach is a tri-level test battery, being a combination of top-level speech perception ability, mid-level phoneme identification ability and low-level acoustic resolution task. The combined approach, in conjunction with cognitive test scores, will allow for differentiation of the cause of the observed listening deficit.

This studentship is suitable for students with a background in either audiology, psychology, education or speech-language therapy and an interest in quantitative research. Experience with statistical analysis would be beneficial. Previous clinical or paediatric experience will be preferred. 

Please email any questions to: admissions.doctoralacademy@manchester.ac.uk.

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Diagnosing listening difficulties in children: The relationship between auditory processing speech processing, language processing, and cognitive abilities in children with listening difficulties.

This project will be based at The University of Melbourne with a 12 month stay at The University of Manchester.

The University of Melbourne is seeking applicants for a full time PhD scholarship, in conjunction with The University of Manchester. This unique opportunity will allow the successful applicant international travel and collaboration opportunities in a reciprocal program facilitating a parallel PhD partnership.

A range of deficits can cause children difficulty in understanding speech in acoustically challenging situations, like many classrooms. Currently, it is difficult to determine the cause of these difficulties. Deficits in auditory processing, speech processing, language processing, or cognition, present in similar manners, and can be difficult to test for separately. A systematic approach to differentiate between these causes has been devised. The proposed approach is a tri-level test battery, being a combination of top-level speech perception ability, mid-level phoneme identification ability and low-level acoustic resolution task. The combined approach, in conjunction with cognitive test scores, will allow for differentiation of the cause of the observed listening deficit. This project will contribute to our understanding of how the abilities measured by these novel tests relate to one another and are influenced by basic underlying processes.

The results of this PhD will enable future users of the test battery to determine the dominant problem(s) causing individual children to present with listening difficulties, and hence more appropriately target remediation than is currently possible. The parallel Manchester-based program will be concurrently establishing normative data sets for populations in both settings. By investigating the relationships between the abilities measured on each level of the test, this PhD project will allow for this new clinical test-battery to be implemented into clinical practice in Melbourne (or elsewhere in Australia) and the for the potential establishment of a university service in Manchester (or elsewhere in the UK).  With minor variations (to create versions of top level test, as it depends on the language spoken) the test battery will have application worldwide.

The essential requirement in potential applicants is the ability to carry out behavioural tests on children of primary school age. Desirable skills include qualifications or knowledge in any of audiology, psychology, speech therapy or education.

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Hygienic citizenship: Shifting cultures of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation.

This project will be based at The University of Manchester with a 12 month stay at The University of Melbourne.

Critical examination of practices of cleanliness, hygiene, and sanitation is vital for advancing human and environmental health. This PhD project aims to understand how these practices (care for self, others, clothes, things, homes) constantly shifts in response to global changes (eg pandemics), resource availability (eg water/energy supplies), material and technological change (eg digital innovations, housing, consumer products), urbanity, and socio-cultural dynamics (eg cultural/religious beliefs, intergenerational practices, gender, professional expectations). By unveiling dynamics that shape these practices in the Chinese cities of Beijing and Tianjin, the research will develop new insights into changing cultures and socio-environmental change; and inform health, social care and environmental projects and policy.

The question driving this PhD studentship is: where, how and why are the complex socio-material dynamics underpinning practices of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation changing across Beijing and Tianjin? Underpinning this is an exploration of the (new) ways that hygiene contours citizenship; critically interrogating how national hygiene and cleanliness agendas (alongside sustainable consumption, infrastructure, and urban development agendas) build specific notions of civic modernity, including defining values and practices of ‘good hygienic citizens’ in maintaining bodies/homes/built/urban environments (cf. Jack, Anantharaman, and Browne, 2020; Larrington-Spencer, Browne and Petrova, 2020).

The objectives of the project will be to:

  1. identify current and emerging patterns in practices of cleanliness, hygiene, sanitation in Beijing and Tianjin;
  2. explore the interconnectivities between changing hygienic practices and potential socio-environmental impacts across a range of sectors (water, energy, sanitation, waste, health);
  3. explore conceptualisations of ‘hygienic citizenship’ within social care, public health, urban development and environmental policy.

The PhD starts from the understanding that underpinning policy directives around environmental sustainability and population health are a range of hard-to-know, private, intimate, social and affective practices; shaped by a variety of material and infrastructural conditions and diverse cultural understandings of health and hygiene. It is the enactment of these mundane practices – people caring for homes, clothes, and the bodies and detritus of themselves and others – that consumes resources (water, energy, materials), creates wastes, and contributes to population level health and environmental outcomes. These practices are often habituated and routinised, enacted to create comfort and cleanliness (Shove, 2003), yet they hold potential for rapid alteration in different social and material circumstances (Browne et al., 2019).

This PhD studentship will use a variety of mixed methods to conceptualise and collect evidence of patterns and cultures of cleanliness and hygiene (ethnographic research, qualitative research, quantitative surveys to capture practices, policy reviews and expert interviews). The methods will be developed to investigate the intersection of everyday practices with societal change (eg previous and current experiences and responses to pandemics), evolving citizen and scientific knowledges of health hygiene and cleanliness, environmental processes (eg environmental pollution such as increasing water/energy use or waste), urban politics, and material cultures and infrastructural systems change (eg emerging technologies, products, household/community infrastructure).

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A water-abundant urbanism? The new urban water profiles of Beijing and Tianjin.

This project will be based at The University of Melbourne with a 12 month stay at The University of Manchester.

The proposed PhD project will examine the changing urban water profiles of Beijing and Tianjin, following the construction of the South-North Water Transfer Project, and explore the possible emergence of a water-abundant urbanism in places long defined by water scarcity. Grounded conceptually in hydropolitical theory and urban geography, the project will explore Chinese notions of ecological civilisation, eco-cities, human-environment relations, and “natural” water scarcity to better understand the supply, distribution, and consumption of urban water, as well as the changing values attached to different flows of water. A particular focus will be on “environmental water”, a relatively new and growing category of urban water use.

It is anticipated that the project will use mixed methods including in-depth interviews with residents, municipal officials, and water company employees, as well as collation of water consumption statistics, and some form of participatory mapping of key urban greening sites. A key task will be to identify how environmental flows are defined, allocated, and used - for lakes or other ecosystems, for water treatment plants, for public or private green spaces, for groundwater recharge – and how that might differ from understandings of environmental flows in other countries.

The project builds on long-term research by scholars at The University of Melbourne and Chinese colleagues on water management, hydropolitics, and environmental governance in China. The candidate will be supervised at the Asia Institute, Faculty of Arts, and also work closely with the School of Geography, Faculty of Science. Following fieldwork in Beijing and Tianjin, the candidate will spend 12 months at The University of Manchester. Here the candidate will work within the School of Environment, Education and Development (SEED) particularly in Department of Geography where there is substantial expertise on water governance, hydropolitics (Society and Environment Research Group - SERG), participatory mapping and urban green/blue infrastructures (Mapping: Culture and Geographical Information Science/MGIS Research Group); and link with other University research institutes: Manchester China Institute, Manchester Urban Institute, Sustainable Consumption Institute, and the Manchester Environmental Research Institute.

The project will make an innovative and timely contribution to urban geography, Chinese Studies, and hydropolitics and will further our understanding of forms of Chinese urbanism and what ecological civilisation means in practice.

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Transportation infrastructure in Tanzania and Kenya: A comparative analysis of Chinese and non-Chinese projects and their urban impacts.

This project will be based at The University of Manchester with a 12 month stay at The University of Melbourne.

The deterioration of the relationship between the US and China accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic, and according to some commentators it heralds a ‘new Cold War.’ Indeed, the Financial Times recently launched a New Cold War Series. The ‘new’ Cold War differs from its namesake because the USSR had a small economy based on natural resource exports, it was technologically backward and autarchic. By contrast, China’s economy is on track to become the largest in the world, its firms can operate competently at the technological frontier and it is deeply integrated in the global economy.

Thus, the ‘new’ Cold War will be a very different conflict from its predecessor. Most importantly, the containment of the USSR was Washington’s primary foreign policy objective for nearly four decades, but US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo recently noted that the competition with China “isn’t about containment…it’s about a complex new challenge that we’ve never faced before. The USSR was closed off from the free world. Communist China is already within our borders.” Therefore, the new Cold War exhibits a novel territorial logic in which China, and the US and its allies, compete to strategically integrate territory in ways that orients it towards value chains anchored by their domestic champions. To this end, the US, Australia and Japan recently established the “Blue Dot Network,” whose objective is to “strengthen development finance cooperation in support of principles-based infrastructure and sustainable economic growth.” China has a head start, however, because its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) was launched in 2013 and it is the world’s most ambitious infrastructure development scheme. Through a series of terrestrial and maritime development corridors, the BRI serves to expand China’s infrastructural linkages, open new markets for its construction sector and offshore labour-intensive manufacturing.

The competition to strategically integrate territory is on full display in East Africa. According to the 2019 Deloitte Africa Construction Trends Report, Tanzania and Kenya are tied at the top the table of African countries, each with 51 new large-scale infrastructure projects launched in 2018-2019. This project will compare how transnational railway projects in Kenya and Tanzania impact urbanization.

The rail project in Kenya was financed and built by Chinese firms, and it links the country’s two largest cities (Nairobi and Mombasa). By some estimates it is the most expensive railway in the world in terms of cost per kilometre, and critics claim it constitutes a ‘debt trap’ that will render Kenya dependent on China. By contrast, Tanzania’s relationship with China was ruptured when President John Magufuli canceled a $10 billion port project. Chinese firms are virtually absent from Tanzania’s booming infrastructure sector, and the central corridor railway that links Dar es Salaam with Central Africa is publicly funded and it is being constructed by a Turkish firm.

This research will examine how the different finance and planning models in Kenya and Tanzania impact urbanization. In particular, it will compare land assembly, engagement with local communities, localized economic spillovers and prospects for global market access to local producers.

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Urbanisation, special economic zones and the China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Upgrading Pakistan’s urban system or bypassing metropolises?

This project will be based at The University of Melbourne with a 12 month stay at The University of Manchester.

The deterioration of the relationship between the US and China accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic, and according to some commentators it heralds a ‘new Cold War.’ Indeed, the Financial Times recently launched a New Cold War Series. The ‘new’ Cold War differs from its namesake in a number of ways. The USSR had a relatively small economy based on natural resource exports, it was technologically backward and autarchic. By contrast, China’s economy is on track to be the largest in the world within a decade, its firms can operate competently at the technological frontier and it is deeply integrated in the global economy.

Given these differences, the ‘new’ Cold War will be a very different conflict from its predecessor. Most importantly, the containment of the USSR was Washington’s primary foreign policy objective for nearly four decades, but US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo recently noted that the competition with China “isn’t about containment…it’s about a complex new challenge that we’ve never faced before. The USSR was closed off from the free world. Communist China is already within our borders.” Thus, the new Cold War exhibits a novel territorial logic, in which China, and the US and its allies, compete to strategically integrate territory in ways that orients it towards value chains anchored by their domestic champions. To this end, the US, Australia and Japan recently established the “Blue Dot Network,” whose objective is to “strengthen development finance cooperation in support of principles-based infrastructure and sustainable economic growth.” China has a head start, however, because its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) was launched in 2013 and it is perhaps the world’s most ambitious infrastructure development scheme. Through a series of terrestrial and maritime development corridors, the BRI serves to expand China’s infrastructural linkages, open new markets for its oversized construction sector and offshore labour-intensive manufacturing.

The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is one of the BRI’s primary components, and it links China’s remote western border to Gwadar on the Indian Ocean via a Trans-Himalayan highway and railways that criss-cross Pakistan. This transport network is anchored by a series of special economic zones that serve as key urban nodes designed to attract Chinese investment and foster export-oriented growth.

The overarching question of this project is how CPEC’s SEZs shape urbanization in Pakistan, and it focuses on their economic, social and political impacts. Many SEZs become enclaves which offer few benefits to the city in which they are located. In this case, however, Chinese investment is supposed to prioritize sectors that offer potential to improve human development indicators. This project will explore the ground reality of Chinese SEZs within CPEC, and assess their economic and social impacts. Furthermore, this research will be contextualized in Pakistan’s dynamic institutional and political environment. Phase II of CPEC includes its SEZs, and the CPEC Authority has been created to manage their construction, thereby circumventing civilian oversight. As a result, urban development has been depoliticized and this project will explore the political impacts of this regulatory reform.

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