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BA History and American Studies

Year of entry: 2021

Course unit details:
The Aftermath of War in France, Britain and Germany: Violence and Reconstruction after WW1 and WW2

Unit code HIST31671
Credit rating 20
Unit level Level 3
Teaching period(s) Semester 1
Offered by History
Available as a free choice unit? No


Integrating recent historiographical developments, this course considers the aftermath of the First World War and Second World War in a comparative perspective. It explores how Western European societies ‘got out of the war’ socially and culturally speaking, how wartime attitudes were gradually dismantled and how ‘ordinary’ citizens sought to rebuild ‘normal’ life in the aftermath of war. The primary focus is on Britain, France and Germany. Key questions include: How did British, French and German societies try to come to terms with mass death and trauma? How did the dead impinge upon the lives of the living in the post-1918 and post-1945 period? What does ‘normalisation’ mean? What normative discourses did post-war societies develop about the role of the father and sexuality? Can we interpret the emergence and development of humanitarian and human rights as a way of ‘turning away from war’? This course invites students to engage critically with key concepts and the historiography, using a wide range of secondary and primary sources, including oral interviews, memoirs, films, novels and photographs.


HIST31672 is restricted to History programmes, History joint honours programmes, and Euro Studies (please check your programme regulations for further details).

This module is only available to students on History-owned programmes; Euro Studies programmes; and History joint honours programmes owned by other subject areas. Available to students on an Erasmus programme subject to VSO approval.


This course aims to:

  • Encourage students to critically engage with key concepts and historiographical issues in the social and cultural history of the transitions from war to peace in the post-1918 and post-1945 period.
  • Consider the complexity of French, British, German experiences of the transition from war to peace and the differences between the aftermaths of the First and Second World Wars.
  • Enable students to manipulate and assess primary sources, particularly ego-documents such as letters and diaries, and interweave primary and secondary sources in arguments and discussions.
  • Facilitate group work culminating in an oral presentation on a film of the students' choice related to the subject matter of the course unit.
  • Enable students to formulate and articulate historical arguments both orally, before the members of the seminar, and in written form in assessed work.



Learning outcomes

By the end of this course students will be able to:


The course explores the post-war transitions after 1918 and 1945 in France, Britain and Germany in a comparative perspective. It is divided into eleven classes, each composed of a one-hour lecture followed by a two-hour seminar, with an overarching chronological framework. Each class examines a particular key theme (cultural demobilisation, extreme violence, transitional trials...etc.) and situates it within its historiographical and historical contexts. The lecture adopts a comparative approach and provides a general overview. In seminars, students are encouraged to develop a critical awareness of key primary and secondary sources, respond to the views of others and debate controversial issues in a structured environment. In week 3, I organise an archival research workshop at the John Rylands’ Library. The John Rylands Library holds the archives of the London Office of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. During the seminar, we examine key IWSA documents dating from 1918 and 1919.

Weekly breakdown of course unit content:

Week 1. The Aftermath of the First World War: Approaches and Debates

Week 2. Ending the war? The Paris Peace Conference in 1919

Week 3. ‘Let Women Make Peace’: Women’s Transnational Activism

Week 4. Coming out of War: Demobilisation, Para-militarism and Extreme Violence

Week 5. The aftermath of the First World War: a turning point in the history of humanitarianism?

Week 6. Life After Death: Family and Mourning

Week 7. The Aftermath of the Second World War: Approaches and Debates

Week 8. Violence, Hunger and Victimhood in the German Rubble             

Week 9. Coming ‘Home’ and Rebuilding Family Life

Week 10. Punishing wartime collaborators: Retribution, purges, transnational justice

Week 11. Expulsion, Displacement and Humanitarianism


Teaching and learning methods

The course is taught through a weekly workshop (3 hours), which combines an one-hour lecture and two hour seminar, which consists of analysis of primary and secondary sources, small group work, and full class discussions. For each seminar, I use a seminar handout, which structures the discussion and helps students for revision. In week 3, I organise a workshop at the John Rylands’ Library. The aim of this workshop is to help students to learn how to gather information as an independent researcher and to better prepare them for the demands of their group Research portfolio and Level 3 dissertation. Students also have access to a dedicated additional office hour for this module in which they are encouraged to meet individually with the course unit director to discuss their ideas and progress on the course. The course is fully supported by Blackboard, with weekly directed reading and primary source material made available, along with other relevant course materials (lecture slides, links to websites, digital archives, etc). All coursework would be submitted and feedback returned via Blackboard/Turnitin. In line with History assessment policy, all written feedback will incorporate ‘feed forward’ advice on improving future assessment performance.



Knowledge and understanding

  • Critically assess the social and cultural impact of the two world wars on French, German and British societies
  • Identify major historiographical debates in the history of violence in the aftermath of the Great War
  • Understand processes of cultural demobilisation, homecomings, bereavement, mourning and reconstruction in the wake of war


Intellectual skills

  • Understand and critique the different methodological approaches that historians have been employing to study the aftermaths of the First and Second World Wars
  • Identify a number of key historiographical debates in the field, including on violence and the ‘brutalisation’ of European societies, war-related changes in gender relations and post-war justice
  • Critically evaluate how ordinary French, British and German citizens emerged from the horrors of the First World War, Fascism and the Second World War in social and cultural terms
  • Interpret both visual and written primary sources within their historical context and assess their reliability as historical evidence

Practical skills

Essay writing:

  • Articulate a clear, sustained and coherent argument with appropriate references to both primary and secondary sources
  • Recognise and deploy historical terminology correctly

Communication skills:

  • Deliver an oral presentation as part of a team
  • Participate in seminar discussions and debates

Research skills:

  • Select, comprehend and organise primary and secondary sources on a topic with limited guidance
  • Comment on the work of a peer, identifying strengths and making constructive suggestions for improvement where appropriate

Transferable skills and personal qualities

  • Work as part of a team – recognising and identifying views of others and working constructively within a group environment
  • Present a clear oral analysis using appropriate media, coherently organised and effectively supported by relevant evidence
  • Produce to a deadline and in examination conditions a coherent argument
  • Make the most effective use of online search engines, internet resources, word processing and presentation software

Employability skills

Analytical skills
Analytical and intellectual skills (critical analysis of legal, social and visual sources, including photography and film)
Group/team working
nterpersonal skills (the ability to work with and motivate others and to demonstrate leadership skills).
Oral communication
Communication and Presentation skills (the ability to develop well-structured answers in seminar and communicate key points effectively)
Research skills (the ability to develop a successful research project, analysing information from different sources).


This module is available to students on History-owned programmes; History and American Studies; and Euro Studies programmes.

Assessment methods

Method Weight
Written exam 40%
Written assignment (inc essay) 30%
Portfolio 30%

Feedback methods

Oral feedback on group presentation and in seminar discussions. In week 5, I arrange a meeting with each group to provide feedback on their action plan and help them (i) write their Source Portfolio (2) prepare their oral presentation - formative and summative.

Written feedback on all coursework. In line with History assessment policy, all written feedback will incorporate ‘feed forward’ advice on improving future assessment performance - summative.

Additional one-to-one feedback (during consultation hour or by making an appointment) - formative.



Recommended reading

Jay Winter Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning. The Great War in European Cultural History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Bruno Cabanes ‘1919, an aftermath’ in Jay Winter (ed) The Cambridge History of the First World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), Chapter 7, pp. 172-198.

Robert Gerwarth and John Horne (eds) War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence if Europe After the Great War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012) – particularly the introduction, chapter 3, chapter 12, chapter 13.

Mark Edele and Robert Gerwarth ‘The Limits of Demobilisation: Global Perspectives on the Aftermath of the Great War, Journal of Contemporary History 50 (2015), pp. 3-14.

Richard Bessel and Dirk Schumann ‘Introduction – Violence, Normality and the Construction of Postwar Europe’ in Richard Bessel and Dirk Schumann (eds) Life after Death: Approaches to a cultural and social history of Europe during the 1940s and 1950s (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 1-13.

Frank Biess and Robert G. Moeller (eds) Histories of the Aftermath, The legacies of the Second World War in Europe (Oxford: Berghahn books, 2014).

Tony Judt Postwar: A history of Europe since 1945 (New York: Penguin Press, 2005).

Study hours

Scheduled activity hours
Assessment written exam 2
External visits 4
Seminars 33
Independent study hours
Independent study 161

Teaching staff

Staff member Role
Laure Humbert Unit coordinator

Additional notes


Essay, summative, 2000 words, 30%

Group Research Portfolio, summative, 2500 words plus 1000 words (in group), 30%

This assessment is composed of three key elements:

  • A 1,000-word action plan (10%, due in week 4); feedback provided in week 5
  • A 10 minutes oral presentation (20%, week 7) presented in class
  • A 2,500-word Group Source Portfolio (70%, week 7)

Exam, summative, 2 hours, 40%

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